Williams Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy: 14th Edition Test Bank - Nix

Williams Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy: 14th Edition Test Bank – Nix

$29.99

Williams Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy: 14th Edition Test Bank – Nix
What: TEST BANK
ISBN: 0323083471
Year Published: 2013
Authors: Nix
Edition: 14th

Product Description

Williams Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy: 14th Edition Test Bank – Nix

 

Williams Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy: 14th Edition Test Bank – Nix

 

Sample

 

 

Chapter 5: Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The process of digestion involves _____ and _____ actions.
a. thermal, chemical
b. chemical, electrical
c. mechanical, chemical
d. mechanical, thermal

 

 

ANS:  C

For nutrients to be delivered to the cells, food goes through a series of mechanical and chemical changes.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   65                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The rhythmic contractions of the stomach and intestine that propel food along are called
a. segmentation.
b. peristalsis.
c. cardiospasm.
d. pendular movements.

 

 

ANS:  B

Peristalsis is the alternating muscular contractions and relaxations that force the contents forward through the gastrointestinal tract. The smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal wall provide these two movements to ensure continuous passage of the food mass and valve control along its journey.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   66                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An example of a gastric secretion is
a. intestinal lipase.
b. pancreatic amylase.
c. bile.
d. hydrochloric acid.

 

 

ANS:  D

Gastric secretions include enzymes, hydrochloric acid and buffer ions, mucus, water and electrolytes.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   67                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A pizza slice is being consumed by a hungry teen. The first actions of biting, chewing, and breaking up the slice into smaller particles is called
a. peristalsis.
b. segmentation.
c. pendular movements.
d. mastication.

 

 

ANS:  D

Mastication begins mechanical digestion in the mouth. Mastication is the biting and chewing that begins to break food into smaller particles.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   66                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A food that begins chemical digestion in the mouth is
a. chicken.
b. yogurt.
c. candy.
d. bread.

 

 

ANS:  D

In the mouth, salivary glands secrete salivary amylase, which is the general name for any starch-splitting enzyme. Thus a food with starch content, such as bread, could begin its chemical digestion in the mouth.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   69-70             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. After ingested food is mixed and churned with gastric secretions, the semifluid mass is called
a. chyle.
b. chyme.
c. renin.
d. bolus.

 

 

ANS:  B

By the time the food mass reaches the lower portion of the stomach, it is a semiliquid, acid-food mix called chyme.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   67                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. One type of movement in the small intestine is
a. mastication.
b. segmentation.
c. kinetic propulsion.
d. expulsion.

 

 

ANS:  B

The intestinal muscles produce several types of movement that aid digestion, including peristalsis, pendular movements, segmentation, longitudinal rotation, and surface villi motions.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Compared with the pH in the stomach, the pH in the small intestine is
a. lower.
b. higher.
c. the same.
d. neutral.

 

 

ANS:  B

The pH of the stomach is acidic (lower) and the pH of the small intestine is alkaline (higher).

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The enzyme that would be most important for digesting a skinless chicken breast would be
a. sucrase.
b. lipase.
c. peptidase.
d. bile.

 

 

ANS:  C

A skinless chicken breast contains more protein than any other nutrient. The protein is partially digested to peptides by peptidase.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A food that is high in a macronutrient broken down by trypsin is
a. bread.
b. fruit.
c. margarine.
d. chicken.

 

 

ANS:  D

Trypsin breaks down protein to dipeptides. In this case, chicken is the high-protein food.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The lining of the stomach and intestine is protected from strong acid by
a. pepsinogen.
b. bile.
c. mucus.
d. the presence of food.

 

 

ANS:  C

Because the stomach contains hydrochloric acid, mucus is available to protect its lining from the erosive effects of the acid. Large quantities of mucus are secreted by the intestinal glands to protect the mucosal lining from irritation and erosion caused by the high acidic gastric contents entering the duodenum.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release its secretions is
a. gastrin.
b. enterogastrone.
c. cholecystokinin.
d. secretin.

 

 

ANS:  D

The hormone secretin, which is produced by the mucosal glands in the first part of the intestine, controls the secretion of enzymes and other substances from the pancreas.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A meal consisting of country fried steak, carrots, and a baked potato with butter and sour cream would stimulate the hormone cholecystokinin because of the
a. presence of food in the duodenum.
b. presence of fat in the duodenum.
c. entry of the acidic chyme into the duodenum.
d. entry of bile into the duodenum.

 

 

ANS:  B

The stimulus for the release of cholecystokinin is the presence of fat in the duodenum. Once stimulated, cholecystokinin stimulates the gallbladder to release bile to emulsify fat.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. After eating fried chicken the end products from the digestion of fat include
a. glycerol and fatty acids.
b. glucose and fatty acids.
c. amino acids and dipeptides.
d. cholesterol and glycerol.

 

 

ANS:  A

The end products of digestion of fats are glycerol and fatty acids. Intestinal lipase splits fat into glycerides and fatty acids.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A means of absorption that occurs in the small intestine is
a. exchange.
b. pinocytosis.
c. filtration.
d. electrochemical transport.

 

 

ANS:  B

Simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active diffusion, and pinocytosis are the processes by which nutrients cross the inner intestinal wall and into the body circulation. Pinocytosis is the penetration of larger materials by attaching to the thicker cell membrane and being engulfed by the cell.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   71|73              TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. After absorption, the end products of carbohydrate and protein digestion enter the
a. lacteal.
b. bile duct.
c. blood system.
d. bowel.

 

 

ANS:  C

Once carbohydrates and protein are digested and absorbed, they cross the inner intestinal wall and enter the bloodstream.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   73                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The primary nutritional function of the large intestine is
a. absorption of fats.
b. absorption of water.
c. excretion of waste products.
d. completion of the digestive process.

 

 

ANS:  B

The primary function of the large intestine is to absorb water from the chyme. The water is absorbed in the first half of the colon.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   73                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Bacteria found in the colon are significant because they
a. synthesize some vitamins.
b. are a source of contamination.
c. finish digesting whatever remains in the colon.
d. are necessary for mineral absorption.

 

 

ANS:  A

Vitamin K is synthesized from bacteria in the large intestine.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   76                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Gas formation in the colon is the result of
a. ingestion of certain foods.
b. ingestion of too much water.
c. inadequate ingestion of fiber.
d. bacterial action on undigested items.

 

 

ANS:  D

Bacterial action on indigestible food items in the large intestine can contribute to the formation of gas.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   73-74             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. After digestion, fatty materials are absorbed into the
a. bloodstream.
b. outer skin.
c. colon.
d. lacteals.

 

 

ANS:  D

Because fatty materials are not water soluble, these molecules pass into the lymph vessels in the villi (the lacteals), then into the larger lymph vessels of the body, and eventually into the bloodstream.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   71                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Dietary fiber is beneficial because it
a. is high in nutrients.
b. is readily digested.
c. adds bulk to feces.
d. absorbs excess nutrients.

 

 

ANS:  C

Food fiber is not digested because human beings lack the specific enzymes required, but adds bulk to the diet.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   73                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The sum total of all the chemical changes that an organism performs to maintain its life and produce energy is the result of
a. metabolism.
b. digestion.
c. absorption.
d. respiration.

 

 

ANS:  A

Metabolism is the sum total of all chemical changes that take place in the body by which it maintains itself and produces energy for all its functions.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   73                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Bile contains
a. hormones.
b. enzymes.
c. plasma.
d. emulsifiers.

 

 

ANS:  D

Bile is an emulsifying agent that aids in fat digestion and absorption.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Two organs that work with the small intestine in digestion are the
a. liver and kidneys.
b. stomach and large intestine.
c. pancreas and liver.
d. large intestine and colon.

 

 

ANS:  C

The pancreas aids in digestion by secreting enzymes to aid in protein, carbohydrate, and fat digestion. The presence of fat in the small intestine triggers the release of bile from the gallbladder; bile is made in the liver and the gallbladder is located in the liver.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Conversion of amino acids to glucose is called
a. metabolism.
b. glycogenosis.
c. gluconeogenesis.
d. catabolism.

 

 

ANS:  C

Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of amino acids to glucose.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   71|75              TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The surface of the intestinal wall has mucosal folds, villi, and microvilli to
a. aid in peristalsis.
b. increase the surface area for absorption.
c. decrease the surface area for absorption.
d. increase the number of enzyme-secreting cells.

 

 

ANS:  B

Mucosal folds, villi, and microvilli combine to make the inner surface some 600 times greater than the area of the outer surface of the intestine. This increases the surface area available for absorption.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   71                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Ways to minimize formation of stomach gas include
a. avoiding caffeine.
b. chewing with your mouth open.
c. drinking liquids through a straw.
d. not gulping.

 

 

ANS:  D

Stomach gas can be minimized by avoiding carbonated beverages, chewing with the mouth closed, not gulping food, not drinking from a can or through a straw, and not eating while nervous.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   74                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A beverage that may cause intestinal gas in adults is
a. milk.
b. coffee.
c. apple juice.
d. cola.

 

 

ANS:  A

Many adults lack the enzyme lactase to digest milk. For adults who do not produce this enzyme, undigested lactose from milk is fermented by bacteria in the colon, causing intestinal gas.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   74

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Ms. J. complains of gas and bloating along with abdominal pain, especially after drinking milk or eating ice cream or cheese. She may have
a. lactose intolerance.
b. phenylalanine intolerance.
c. calcium deficiency.
d. vitamin D deficiency.

 

 

ANS:  A

Lactose intolerance is characterized by a wide range of gastrointestinal problems such as gas, bloating, and abdominal pain after eating milk and other dairy products. Patients with lactose intolerance do not produce lactase. Undigested lactose from dairy products is fermented by bacteria in the colon, causing gas and other symptoms.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   74                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Which of the following foods would require peptidases to assist in its chemical digestion?
a. chicken.
b. banana.
c. orange juice.
d. margarine.

 

 

ANS:  A

Proteins require amino peptidase to assist in removing end amino acids from polypeptides. Chicken is a food high in protein.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Williams Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy: 14th Edition Test Bank – Nix

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