Understanding Nursing Research: 5th Edition Test Bank - Burns

Understanding Nursing Research: 5th Edition Test Bank – Burns

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Understanding Nursing Research: 5th Edition Test Bank – Burns
What: TEST BANK
ISBN: 1437707505
Year Published: 2010
Authors: Burns
Edition: 5th

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Understanding Nursing Research: 5th Edition Test Bank – Burns

 

Understanding Nursing Research: 5th Edition Test Bank – Burns

 

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Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
Burns: Understanding Nursing Research, 5th Edition
Chapter 05: Research Problems, Purposes, and Hypotheses
Test Bank
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The initial and one of the most significant steps in conducting the research process is:
a. defining the research variables.
b. determining the feasibility of the study.
c. identifying the research problem.
d. stating the research purpose.
ANS: C
The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose.
Variables are defined once the study problem and purpose are clearly identified. The
problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose.
The feasibility of a study is an important consideration once the problem and purpose
have been established. The problem provides the basis for developing the research
purpose.
The research purpose is a clear, concise statement regarding the goal of the study; it
comes from the need identified through the research problem. The problem provides the
basis for developing the research purpose.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 148
2. The research purpose should identify the study variable(s) and what other key aspect of
the study?
a. Design
b. Measurement tools
c. Population
d. Statistics
ANS: C
The purpose includes the variables, population, and often the setting for the study.
The study design is how the research is going to be carried out. The purpose includes the
variables, population, and often the setting for the study.
Measurement tools that are used are included in the methodology section. The purpose
includes the variables, population, and often the setting for the study.
Statistics are included as part of the methodology. The purpose includes the variables,
population, and often the setting for the study.
DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge REF: p. 146
3. An appropriate source for identification of a clinical-based research problem would be
a/an:
a. Chief nurse administrator.
Test Bank
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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b. Nurse researcher.
c. Nursing faculty.
d. Practicing registered nurse.
ANS: D
Research in nursing should influence nursing practice and address needs in nursing
practice. Practicing nurses are best able to identify pertinent clinical problems for
research.
Nurse managers are best able to identify administrative and management concerns
amenable for research.
Clinical-based research requires that nurse researchers develop close relationships with
practicing nurses so as to identify pertinent problems for nursing research.
Nursing faculty are best able to identify pertinent education concerns for research.
DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 145
4. In the literature report of a study on quality of life, the researcher describes two previous
investigations suggesting that spirituality is related to quality of life. This information
suggests that the current study is significant because it:
a. addresses multidisciplinary concerns.
b. builds on previous research.
c. challenges existing theory.
d. influences theology.
ANS: B
A significant study problem and purpose are based on previous research. In a research
article, the introduction and literature review sections include relevant studies that
provide a basis for a study.
The study does not appear to address multidisciplinary concerns. A significant study
problem and purpose are based on previous research. In a research article, the
introduction and literature review sections include relevant studies that provide a basis for
a study.
There is no indication that the study will challenge existing theory. A significant study
problem and purpose are based on previous research. In a research article, the
introduction and literature review sections include relevant studies that provide a basis for
a study.
From information given, it would be incorrect to conclude that the study influences
theology. A significant study problem and purpose are based on previous research. In a
research article, the introduction and literature review sections include relevant studies
that provide a basis for a study.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 155
5. The feasibility of conducting a study is determined by examining which of the following?
a. Availability of subjects
b. Previous studies
c. Researcher’s credibility
d. Significance of research problem
Test Bank
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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ANS: A
The feasibility of a research problem and purpose is determined by examining the
researcher’s expertise; money commitment; availability of subjects, facilities, and
equipment; and the study’s ethical considerations.
Previous studies may help guide a researcher to conduct a certain study, but do not
determine its feasibility. The feasibility of a research problem and purpose is determined
by examining the researcher’s expertise; money commitment; availability of subjects,
facilities, and equipment; and the study’s ethical considerations.
The researcher’s credibility may impact a grant award or the interpretation of the study,
but not whether it can be carried out. The feasibility of a research problem and purpose is
determined by examining the researcher’s expertise; money commitment; availability of
subjects, facilities, and equipment; and the study’s ethical considerations.
The significance of the research problem relates to whether or not it is seen as important.
The feasibility of a research problem and purpose is determined by examining the
researcher’s expertise; money commitment; availability of subjects, facilities, and
equipment; and the study’s ethical considerations.
DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge REF: p. 158
6. In a research proposal, the investigator notes that written permission has been obtained
from three local hospitals to access patients for the proposed study. This is an example of
what aspect of a study?
a. Ethics
b. Feasibility
c. Methodology
d. Reliability
ANS: B
The feasibility of a research problem and purpose is determined by examining the
researcher’s expertise; money commitment; availability of subjects, facilities, and
equipment; and the study’s ethical considerations.
Ethics should be at the core of any study, but is not determined by access to patients. The
feasibility of a research problem and purpose is determined by examining the researcher’s
expertise; money commitment; availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment; and the
study’s ethical considerations.
The methodology is how the researcher plans the study and its analysis. The feasibility of
a research problem and purpose is determined by examining the researcher’s expertise;
money commitment; availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment; and the study’s
ethical considerations.
The reliability of a study has to do with its methodology and is not dependent on access.
The feasibility of a research problem and purpose is determined by examining the
researcher’s expertise; money commitment; availability of subjects, facilities, and
equipment; and the study’s ethical considerations.
DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 159
7. The purpose of a research hypothesis is to:
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Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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a. clarify the concepts used in the study.
b. define the theoretical framework for the study.
c. identify the source of the problem under study.
d. predict the expected results or outcomes of the study.
ANS: D
The research hypothesis states that there is a relationship between two or more variables.
The hypothesis translates the research problem and purpose into a clear explanation or
prediction of the expected results or outcomes of the study.
The researcher clarifies concepts through definitions provided in the proposal and/or
report of the study.
A theoretical framework is the basis for the hypotheses.
The source of the problem is what the researcher has identified through observation and a
search of the literature.
DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge REF: p. 175
8. The statement, “This study explores the experience of caregiving by adult daughters of
parents with Alzheimer’s disease,” is an example of which of the following components
of a research study?
a. Aim or objective
b. Hypothesis
c. Operational definition
d. Question
ANS: A
A research objective is a clear, concise, declarative statement that is expressed in the
present tense.
A hypothesis is a prediction of what the study results will be.
An operational definition is an exact description of a variable in how it will be described
in the research study.
A research question is a short, interrogative statement that helps direct a study.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 160
9. What type of hypothesis is the following?
“Normal saline flush with heparin is more effective than normal saline flush alone in
maintaining patency of an intermittent intravenous site.”
a. Complex, causal
b. Complex, nondirectional
c. Simple, directional
d. Simple, null
ANS: C
Test Bank
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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A simple hypothesis states the relationship (associative or causal) between two variables.
In this example, the variables are normal saline flush (one independent variable) and
patency of an intermittent intravenous site (one dependent variable). A directional
hypothesis states the nature of the interaction between two or more variables. In this
example, the direction is indicated by the prediction “more effective.”
There are just two variables involved; complex means more than that, and there is no
causal relationship indicated. The feasibility of a research problem and purpose is
determined by examining the researcher’s expertise; money commitment; availability of
subjects, facilities, and equipment; and the study’s ethical considerations.
There are just two variables involved; complex means more than that, and there is a
direction (more effective) indicated. The feasibility of a research problem and purpose is
determined by examining the researcher’s expertise; money commitment; availability of
subjects, facilities, and equipment; and the study’s ethical considerations.
The null hypothesis is the statistical hypothesis that there will be no difference. The
feasibility of a research problem and purpose is determined by examining the researcher’s
expertise; money commitment; availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment; and the
study’s ethical considerations.
DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: pp. 172-173
10. A research question focuses on:
a. the characteristics of a variable.
b. the framework for conducting the investigation.
c. what relationships might exist among variables.
d. the framework for conducting the investigation, which variables are to be
manipulated.
ANS: C
A research question focuses on description of variables or concepts, examination of
relationships among variables, and determination of differences between two or more
groups regarding selected variables.
The characteristic of a variable is given in the operational definition. A research question
focuses on description of variables or concepts, examination of relationships among
variables, and determination of differences between two or more groups regarding
selected variables.
The framework for conducting the investigation comes from the researcher and is
described in the literature review. A research question focuses on description of variables
or concepts, examination of relationships among variables, and determination of
differences between two or more groups regarding selected variables.
The variables to be manipulated are stated in the research design. A research question
focuses on description of variables or concepts, examination of relationships among
variables, and determination of differences between two or more groups regarding
selected variables.
DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge REF: p. 163
11. What type of hypothesis is the following?
Test Bank
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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“Cancer patients who receive music therapy complain less frequently of pain and require
less pain medication than cancer patients not receiving music therapy.”
a. Complex, directional
b. Complex, null
c. Simple, associative
d. Simple, nondirectional
ANS: A
A complex hypothesis predicts the relationship among three or more variables. In this
example, the variables are music therapy (independent), pain (dependent), and
medication (dependent). A directional hypothesis states the nature of the interaction
between two or more variables. In this example, the direction is indicated by the
prediction “complain less frequently.”
A complex hypothesis is correct, but the null hypothesis predicts no difference. A
complex hypothesis predicts the relationship among three or more variables. In this
example, the variables are music therapy (independent), pain (dependent), and
medication (dependent). A directional hypothesis states the nature of the interaction
between two or more variables. In this example, the direction is indicated by the
prediction “complain less frequently.”
This study has more than two variables (not simple) and is simply indicating an
association. A complex hypothesis predicts the relationship among three or more
variables. In this example, the variables are music therapy (independent), pain
(dependent), and medication (dependent). A directional hypothesis states the nature of the
interaction between two or more variables. In this example, the direction is indicated by
the prediction “complain less frequently.”
A simple hypothesis has only two variables (this study has more than two), and there is a
direction predicted (fewer complaints of pain and need for less pain medication). A
complex hypothesis predicts the relationship among three or more variables. In this
example, the variables are music therapy (independent), pain (dependent), and
medication (dependent). A directional hypothesis states the nature of the interaction
between two or more variables. In this example, the direction is indicated by the
prediction “complain less frequently.”
DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: pp. 172-173
12. What type of hypothesis is the following?
“Low-fat diet is related to lower total cholesterol and higher HDL (high-density
lipoprotein).”
a. Complex, directional, associative
b. Complex, directional, causal
c. Simple, nondirectional, research
d. Simple, directional, causal
ANS: A
Test Bank
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
5-7
A complex hypothesis predicts the relationship among three or more variables. In this
example, the variables are low-fat diet, total cholesterol, and HDL. A directional
hypothesis states the nature of the interaction between two or more variables. In this
example, the direction is indicated by the prediction “lower total cholesterol and higher
HDL.” An associative hypothesis proposes relationships among variables that occur or
exist together.
This hypothesis is complex and directional, but no causal relationship is identified.
There are more than two variables included in this hypothesis, so it is complex.
Directions (lower and higher) are also indicated.
There are more than two variables included in this hypothesis, so it is complex. It is
directional, but no causal relationship is identified.
DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: pp. 167, 172-174
13. The dependent variable is defined as a:
a. characteristic or element of the human subjects involved in the study.
b. quality, property, or characteristic identified in the problem.
c. response or outcome that the researcher wants to understand.
d. stimulus or activity that is varied by the researcher.
ANS: C
The dependent variable is the response, behavior, or outcomes that the researcher wants
to predict or explain
The characteristic or element of the human subjects is a demographic variable.
The quality, property, or characteristic identified in the problem describe any variable.
The dependent variable is the response, behavior, or outcomes that the researcher wants
to predict or explain.
The independent variable may be a stimulus or activity that is varied by the researcher.
The dependent variable is the response, behavior, or outcomes that the researcher wants
to predict or explain.
DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge REF: p. 176
14. Identify the independent variable in the following hypothesis:
“Cancer patients who receive music therapy complain less frequently of pain and require
less pain medication than cancer patients not receiving music therapy.”
a. Complaints of pain
b. Incidence of cancer
c. Music therapy
d. Pain medication use
ANS: C
An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the
researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. In this example, music therapy is
the “treatment” that is being used to manipulate frequency of pain and amount of required
pain medication, a stimulus or activity that is varied by the researcher.
Test Bank
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
5-8
The number of pain complaints would be a dependent variable. An independent variable
is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect
on the dependent variable. In this example, music therapy is the “treatment” that is being
used to manipulate frequency of pain and amount of required pain medication, a stimulus
or activity that is varied by the researcher.
The incidence of cancer is a criterion for inclusion in the study. In this example, music
therapy is the “treatment” that is being used to manipulate frequency of pain and amount
of required pain medication, a stimulus or activity that is varied by the researcher.
Pain medication use is a dependent variable. An independent variable is a stimulus or
activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the
dependent variable. In this example, music therapy is the “treatment” that is being used to
manipulate frequency of pain and amount of required pain medication, a stimulus or
activity that is varied by the researcher.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 176
15. Read the following statement and answer the question: “Structured preoperative support
is more effective in reducing surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for
analgesics than structured postoperative support.”
What type of variable is “Request for analgesics”?
a. Attribute
b. Dependent
c. Extraneous
d. Independent
ANS: B
The dependent variable is the response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants to
predict or explain. In this example, the outcome is “reduced surgical patients’ perception
of pain and request for analgesics.”
The demographic or attribute variables are ones describing the sample. The dependent
variable is the response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants to predict or explain.
In this example, the outcome is “reduced surgical patients’ perception of pain and request
for analgesics.”
Extraneous variables are ones the researcher is not interested in, but have an effect in the
study. The dependent variable is the response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants
to predict or explain. In this example, the outcome is “reduced surgical patients’
perception of pain and request for analgesics.”
An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the
researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable is the
response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants to predict or explain. In this example,
the outcome is “reduced surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for analgesics.”
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 176
16. Read the following statement and answer the question: “Structured preoperative support
is more effective in reducing surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for
analgesics than structured postoperative support.”
Test Bank
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
5-9
What type of variable is “Perception of pain”?
a. Attribute
b. Dependent
c. Independent
d. Extraneous
ANS: B
The dependent variable is the response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants to
predict or explain. In this example, the outcome is “reduced surgical patients’ perception
of pain and request for analgesics.”
The demographic or attribute variables are ones describing the sample. The dependent
variable is the response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants to predict or explain.
In this example, the outcome is “reduced surgical patients’ perception of pain and request
for analgesics.”
An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the
researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable is the
response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants to predict or explain. In this example,
the outcome is “reduced surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for analgesics.”
Extraneous variables are ones the researcher is not interested in, but have an effect in the
study. The dependent variable is the response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants
to predict or explain. In this example, the outcome is “reduced surgical patients’
perception of pain and request for analgesics.”
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 176
17. Read the following statement and answer the question: “Structured preoperative support
is more effective in reducing surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for
analgesics than structured postoperative support.”
What type of variable is “Type of support”?
a. Attribute
b. Dependent
c. Independent
d. Extraneous
ANS: C
An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the
researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. In this example, “type of
support” is being used to manipulate “surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for
analgesics.”
The demographic or attribute variables are ones describing the sample. An independent
variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create
an effect on the dependent variable. In this example, “type of support” is being used to
manipulate “surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for analgesics.”
A dependent variable is the response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants to
predict or explain. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or
varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. In this example,
“type of support” is being used to manipulate “surgical patients’ perception of pain and
request for analgesics.”
Test Bank
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
5-10
Extraneous variables are ones the researcher is not interested in, but have an effect in the
study. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by
the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. In this example, “type of
support” is being used to manipulate “surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for
analgesics.”
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 176
18. Read the following statement and answer the question: “Structured preoperative support
is more effective in reducing surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for
analgesics than structured postoperative support.”
This statement represents what type of hypothesis?
a. Complex, directional, research
b. Complex, nondirectional, null
c. Simple, directional, research
d. Simple, nondirectional, statistical
ANS: A
A complex hypothesis predicts the relationship among three or more variables. A
research hypothesis that states there is a relationship between two or more variables. In
this example, the variables are type of support (independent), perception of pain
(dependent), and use of analgesics (dependent). A directional hypothesis states the nature
of the interaction between two or more variables. In this example, the direction is
indicated by the prediction “reducing surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for
analgesics.”
This hypothesis has more than two variables and is therefore complex. There is a
direction (more effective) mentioned, so it is not nondirectional, and it predicts a
difference. A complex hypothesis predicts the relationship among three or more variables.
The research hypothesis states that there is a relationship between two or more variables.
This hypothesis has more than two variables and is therefore complex. There is a
direction (more effective) mentioned. It is a research hypothesis, as it states that there is a
relationship between two or more variables. A complex hypothesis predicts the
relationship among three or more variables.
This hypothesis has more than two variables and is therefore complex. There is a
direction (more effective) mentioned, so it is not nondirectional, and it predicts a
difference, so it is not the statistical hypothesis. A complex hypothesis predicts the
relationship among three or more variables. The research hypothesis states that there is a
relationship between two or more variables.
DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: pp. 172-173
19. Which of the following would be considered a demographic variable?
a. Heart rate
b. Oral temperature
c. Pain intensity
d. Socioeconomic status
ANS: D
Test Bank
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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Demographic variables are characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to
describe the sample.
Heart rate would not be considered a demographic variable. Demographic variables are
characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to describe the sample.
Oral temperature would not be considered a demographic variable. Demographic
variables are characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to describe the
sample.
Pain intensity would not be considered a demographic variable. Demographic variables
are characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to describe the sample.
DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 182
20. The statement below is an example of which of the following?
“In this study, pain is reflected as a score between 0 and 10 on the postoperative pain
rating scale.”
a. Associative hypothesis
b. Conceptual definition
c. Operational definition
d. Problem statement
ANS: C
An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a
researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree
of existence of a variable. An operational definition is developed so that a variable can be
measured or manipulated in a concrete situation. In this example, pain is the sensory
impression being measured on a numerical scale.
A hypothesis indicates the researcher’s educated guess at what the outcome of the
research will be. An associative hypothesis describes a predicted relationship that the
researcher develops between the established variables being studied. This statement is an
operational definition, not a hypothesis.
A conceptual definition is the theoretical meaning of a variable.
The problem statement indicates the gap in knowledge needed for practice and provides a
basis for the study.
DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 178
21. What type of definition is the following?
“CDD lymphocyte counts are the measure of immune function.”
a. Conceptual
b. Operational
c. Physiological
d. Theoretical
ANS: B
An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a
researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree
of existence of a variable. An operational definition is developed so that a variable can be
measured or manipulated in a concrete situation.
Test Bank
Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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A conceptual definition is the theoretical meaning of a variable.
These are physiological measurements, but the terms within the stem of the question are
not defined physiologically. A physiological definition would provide an accurate
description of the concept on a biologic level.
The conceptual definition can sometimes be a theoretical definition.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 178
22. Which of the following statements describing the research purpose is true?
a. “It is seldom possible to include all the necessary components of a research
purpose within one sentence.”
b. “The research statement is oftentimes disclosed with the discussion of the
findings.”
c. “The reader can determine the research purpose in most titles of research articles.”
d. “The research purpose is revealed only after the foundation has been laid in the
literature review.”
ANS: C
The research purpose captures the essence of the study and is often the first sentence of
the abstract. It is also reflected in the title of the study report.
Usually the variables, population, and setting are included in the research purpose.
The research statement is usually disclosed early in the report, usually within the first
paragraphs and can often be determined in most report titles.
The research statement is usually disclosed early in the report, usually within the first
paragraphs and can oftentimes be determined in most report titles.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 146
23. A researcher found significant evidence that women who had undergone chemotherapy
treatment develop a very strong sensitivity in recognizing the smell of the
chemotherapeutic agent. The researcher now wants to apply for a grant to further
investigate this result. Given that reviewers will consider the significance of this study,
what feedback are they likely to include? “The present study:
a. Addresses the funding priorities for nursing research.”
b. Appears to provide no immediate implication for nursing practice.”
c. Clearly builds on previous research.”
d. Is likely to produce a testable theory for nursing practice.”
ANS: B
The stated research focus will most likely produce exploratory, preliminary information
at best, therefore the information gained will have little to no immediate implication for
nursing practice.
The stated research focus does not address any noted area targeted as a priority need per
the National Institutes of Health (Healthy People 2010) and thus likely to generate
funding.
The stated research focus does not imply that previous research has been conducted, thus
making this project less likely to have an immediate impact on nursing practice.
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As this research focus is not based on previous research, the production of a testable
theory for nursing practice as an outcome of the study is unlikely.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 146
24. What is true about funding priorities in nursing research?
a. Any nursing research evaluating the best educational path for entry into practice is
considered high priority for funding.
b. Most major nursing organizations develop research priorities for research. It is
wise to go to the web site of an agency to view these priorities before asking for
research dollars.
c. The American Nurses Association is the organization that represents nurses and
makes their research priorities clear.
d. The National Institutes of Health determine funding priorities for nursing and other
disciplines.
ANS: B
Many professional organizations have identified research priorities that are listed on their
web site. If these same organizations are offering research dollars, it is important to
match the request with the group most likely to fund it.
The research of the past may have looked inward and studied nurses and nursing, but
research today is focused on quality patient care practices. It may look at how nurses may
impact that, but the focus is on better patient outcomes and ways to achieve them. Many
professional organizations have identified research priorities that are listed on their web
site. If these same organizations are offering research dollars, it is important to match the
request with the group most likely to fund it.
There are many organizations that develop research and funding priorities. Many
professional organizations have identified research priorities that are listed on their web
site. If these same organizations are offering research dollars, it is important to match the
request with the group most likely to fund it.
Many different organizations develop research priorities. A nurse should learn what they
are for a group if applying for funding and match the request to the organization’s
priorities. Many professional organizations have identified research priorities that are
listed on their web site. If these same organizations are offering research dollars, it is
important to match the request with the group most likely to fund it.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 157
25. What question helps determine the significance of a research study?
a. “Does this study build on previous work in the area?”
b. “Is the report well written and easy to read, thereby conveying the essence and
importance of the research?”
c. “Is the topic of the study one that is of interest to the researcher?”
d. “Will this study provide significant statistical information?”
ANS: A
The significance of research is to fill in the gaps in current knowledge, building on
previous research to provide a foundation for determining new information.
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The skill with which the report was written does not correlate with the significance of the
study.
The topic of interest in the research study needs to be one that will provide a significant
difference to nursing practice, education, or further science for continued research.
Although it is important that the researcher is interested in the topic being investigated, it
is not imperative to the significance of the research to nursing.
What makes a study significant is not the actual statistical results but the relevance of the
topic being researched to nursing practice, education and research, in the expansion of
nursing science.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 155
26. What would be the strongest evidence in support of a researcher’s qualifications for
conducting a study? The researcher has
a. A doctoral degree from a prestigious university.
b. Assembled a team of high-quality investigators.
c. Published five previous studies on the same topic.
d. 15 years of practice in the clinical specialty area.
ANS: C
If a researcher has conducted several previous studies on the same topic as the current
one and they are cited in the reference list (therefore published), this is extremely strong
evidence of the feasibility of the current study.
A doctoral degree does demonstrate educational credentials that lend feasibility to the
study, but the degree alone does not provide as much support as published studies. If a
researcher has conducted several previous studies on the same topic as the current one
and they are cited in the reference list (therefore published), this is extremely strong
evidence of the feasibility of the current study.
The use of a talented team is commendable and would probably make the study stronger,
but does not provide as much support as previously published studies. If a researcher has
conducted several previous studies on the same topic as the current one and they are cited
in the reference list (therefore published), this is extremely strong evidence of the
feasibility of the current study.
The years of clinical practice are very valuable in developing clinically relevant research,
but do not provide as much support as published studies. If a researcher has conducted
several previous studies on the same topic as the current one and they are cited in the
reference list (therefore published), this is extremely strong evidence of the feasibility of
the current study.
DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 158
27. An experienced, published researcher’s funded study is to recruit a sample of mothers
with children under the age of 30 entering a shopping complex with $100 spending
money. The purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis that younger mothers will spend
the money on themselves rather than on their children. What are the possible issues with
the feasibility of this study?
a. Availability of subjects
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b. Ethical violations
c. Researcher’s expertise
d. Money commitment
ANS: A
In using only one shopping complex, procuring a suitable, representative sample may be
problematic. The women who consent to participate would probably be a biased group.
There are no apparent ethical violations noted within the study.
The researcher’s expertise is clearly stated.
Because the research is funded, the money commitment to the sample is secured.
DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 159
28. In which situation would the research and the null hypothesis be the same?
a. Researcher does not think that the research is going to mean anything.
b. Researcher predicts that there will be no difference among the groups.
c. Statistical analysis reveals a correlation coefficient of zero.
d. Study has serious flaws and is declared null and void.
ANS: B
The null hypothesis is the statistical hypothesis that tests for no relationship. It is also
used when the researcher predicts that there is no relationship between the variables.
If the researcher does not think the research is going to mean anything, it is probably best
not to conduct it. The null hypothesis is the statistical hypothesis that tests for no
relationship. It is also used when the researcher predicts that there is no relationship
between the variables.
The correlation coefficient may be found to be zero; however, the researcher’s hypothesis
may have been other than that. The null hypothesis is the statistical hypothesis that tests
for no relationship. It is also used when the researcher predicts that there is no
relationship between the variables.
There is no connection between finding serious flaws in a study and the research and null
hypotheses. The null hypothesis is the statistical hypothesis that tests for no relationship.
It is also used when the researcher predicts that there is no relationship between the
variables.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 174
29. One researcher wanted to investigate whether nursing students should take psychiatric
mental health nursing before they take medical surgical nursing. Which of the following
is a correctly stated objective of this study?
a. Do nursing students ultimately perform better on NCLEX® when they have had
the content in psychiatric mental health nursing first or when they have the content
in medical surgical nursing first?
b. Does putting the psychiatric mental health nursing content before medical surgical
content better prepare nursing students to pass NCLEX®?
c. This research study examines whether having psychiatric mental health content
before medical surgical content better prepares nursing students to perform well on
their NCLEX®.
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d. This study explores what students think about their psychiatric mental health
nursing content preceding the content on medical surgical nursing.
ANS: C
An objective is a clear, concise, declarative statement that is expressed in the present
tense and usually focuses on one or two variables.
“Do nursing students ultimately perform better on NCLEX® when they have had the
content in psychiatric mental health nursing first or when they have the content in
medical surgical nursing first?” is not an objective. It is stated as a question. An objective
is a clear, concise, declarative statement that is expressed in the present tense and usually
focuses on one or two variables.
An objective is a clear, concise, declarative statement (not a question) that is expressed in
the present tense and usually focuses on one or two variables.
The study referenced is not about student’s opinions on psychiatric mental health and
medical surgical nursing.
DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 160
30. What statement is true regarding objectives in qualitative studies?
a. Qualitative studies usually do not have an objective statement since the focus in
the study shifts as the study progresses. In qualitative research, the study objective
and hypothesis are the same.
b. Objective statements are long and complex in qualitative studies since they are
more difficult and involve many more variables.
c. The variables and concepts in qualitative studies are usually more complex, so the
objective statement is broader in focus. Qualitative studies usually do not have an
objective statement since the focus in the study shifts as the study progresses.
d. The variables and concepts in qualitative studies are usually more complex, so the
objective statement is broader in focus.
ANS: D
The objectives directing qualitative studies are commonly broader in focus and include
variables or concepts that are more complex and abstract than those of quantitative
studies.
The statement for this choice is incorrect. The objectives directing qualitative studies are
commonly broader in focus and include variables or concepts that are more complex and
abstract than those of quantitative studies.
There is not a certainty that an objective statement for qualitative research will itself be
more lengthy and complex than one for quantitative research. The objectives directing
qualitative studies are commonly broader in focus and include variables or concepts that
are more complex and abstract than those of quantitative studies.
A qualitative study does have objectives; they have a slightly different focus than for
quantitative studies. The objectives directing qualitative studies are commonly broader in
focus and include variables or concepts that are more complex and abstract than those of
quantitative studies.
DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 160
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Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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31. Which of the following would be an appropriate research question for a qualitative study?
a. How do parents decide when to take their child to a physician?
b. How many visits do physicians’ offices receive on Mondays as opposed to
Wednesdays?
c. Should parents take their child to the physician for routine visits?
d. What is the most common reason for a trip to a physician’s office?
ANS: A
Exploring the reasoning of parents in making the decision to take their child to the
physician is an appropriate research question for a qualitative study.
This response indicates a quantitative project because of its mention of numerical data.
This response is phrased as an evaluative question, requiring an ethical analysis. This is
not a researchable question.
This response indicates a quantitative project because of its mention of numerical data.
DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 163
32. A researcher uses the following hypothesis in a study: excessive listening to alternative
music will lead to increased depression in young teenagers. Which of the following
descriptors can be applied to this hypothesis?
a. Complex, associative
b. Complex, negative
c. Positive, causal
d. Simple, nondirectional
ANS: C
The research hypothesis is simple because there are two variables (listening to alternative
music and depression), causal because it predicts that excessive listening will lead to
depression, and positive because more listening will lead to more depression.
The hypothesis goes further than predicting a relationship; it says that one variable causes
the other. The research hypothesis is simple because there are two variables (listening to
alternative music and depression), causal because it predicts that excessive listening will
lead to depression, and positive because more listening will lead to more depression.
The hypothesis included only two variables, and the relationship predicted is a positive
one. The research hypothesis is simple because there are two variables (listening to
alternative music and depression), causal because it predicts that excessive listening will
lead to depression, and positive because more listening will lead to more depression.
Although the hypothesis is simple, it is directional. The research hypothesis is simple
because there are two variables (listening to alternative music and depression), causal
because it predicts that excessive listening will lead to depression, and positive because
more listening will lead to more depression.
DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: pp. 167, 170, 172
33. A researcher uses the following hypothesis in a study: “Excessive listening to alternative
music will lead to increased depression in young teenagers.” Which of the following
dependent variables would need to be defined operationally in the research study?
a. Alternative music
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b. Depression
c. Excessive listening
d. Young teenagers
ANS: B
An operational definition is developed so that variables and other terms in a study can be
measured or manipulated and so that readers can understand all parts of the study and
will be able to replicate the study as closely as possible if desired. Although all of the
listed variables and terms require an operational definition to provide a common and
measurable understanding of the concepts, “depression” is the only dependent variable in
the study as described.
Alternative music is not the dependent variable in this study. However, it does need to be
defined as so to provide a clear understanding of this particular genre of music to the
reader of the study.
Excessive listening is the independent variable in this study. It needs to be defined to
provide a clear understanding of how the term “excessive” will be measured.
“Young teenagers” are the target population under study. A clear definition is required to
provide a boundary for who is to be included in the study.
C
DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 178
34. A researcher uses the following hypothesis in a study: “Excessive listening to alternative
music will lead to increased depression in young teenagers.” Which kind of variable is
“listening”?
a. Complex
b. Continuous
c. Dependent
d. Extraneous
ANS: B
Although “listening” could be a discrete variable, depending on how it is measured, all
other choices can be eliminated as wrong. Excessive listening is the independent variable.
It is not complex because it is only one concept. Listening is a central or integral concept
in the study and therefore not extraneous. Because “listening” is more than likely
measured by time, a continuous variable, this answer is correct.
There are only two variables in the study, so it is a simple hypothesis, and complex does
not describe variables used, but the number of variables noted in the hypothesis.
The dependent variable in this study is degree of depression, which is dependent on or
affected by the listening to alternative music.
The amount of listening to alternative music is an integral part of the study, so it is not an
extraneous variable.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 176
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35. A researcher uses the following hypothesis in a study: “Excessive listening to alternative
music will lead to increased depression in young teenagers.” Which of the following
statements is an acceptable operational definition of “excessive listening”? Excessive
listening is defined as:
a. listening to alternative music more than the average number of hours young
teenagers listen to that type of music.
b. that number of hours over which parents begin to place limitations on listening
time.
c. the number of hours a subject spends listening to alternative music.
d. the number of hours the subjects listen to alternative music. A mean of these hours
will be calculated, and “excessive” will be anything over the mean.
ANS: C
An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a
researcher performs to measure a variable. Although the hypothesis predicts that
excessive listeners will have more likelihood of depression, the variable itself is how
many hours of time are spent listening to the music. The subjects who listen to the
highest number of hours are the ones most likely to exhibit depression. An operational
definition is developed so that a variable can be measured or manipulated in a concrete
situation.
This definition does not tell the reader where the information needed to use it came from.
An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a
researcher performs to measure a variable. Although the hypothesis predicts that
excessive listeners will have more likelihood of depression, the variable itself is how
many hours of time are spent listening to the music. The subjects who listen to the
highest number of hours are the ones most likely to exhibit depression. An operational
definition is developed so that a variable can be measured or manipulated in a concrete
situation.
There is no mention of parental opinion in the hypothesis. This definition introduces an
additional variable, so it is not correct. An operational definition is derived from a set of
procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to measure a variable. Although
the hypothesis predicts that excessive listeners will have more likelihood of depression,
the variable itself is how many hours of time are spent listening to the music. The
subjects who listen to the highest number of hours are the ones most likely to exhibit
depression. An operational definition is developed so that a variable can be measured or
manipulated in a concrete situation.
The definition needs to be established before the study begins. Having the subjects within
the study define the variables of the study is not useful. An operational definition is
derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to measure
a variable. Although the hypothesis predicts that excessive listeners will have more
likelihood of depression, the variable itself is how many hours of time are spent listening
to the music. The subjects who listen to the highest number of hours are the ones most
likely to exhibit depression. An operational definition is developed so that a variable can
be measured or manipulated in a concrete situation.
DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 178
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Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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36. Demographic variables are often used to indicate which of the following?
a. Extraneous variables
b. Population parameters
c. Research hypothesis
d. Sample characteristics
ANS: D
Demographic variables are characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to
describe the sample. They are often used to provide a picture of the sample and are called
sample characteristics.
Extraneous variables are not necessarily demographic in nature. Demographic variables
are characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to describe the sample. They
are often used to provide a picture of the sample and are called sample characteristics.
The population parameters are connected with the entire population, not just the sample.
Demographic variables are characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to
describe the sample. They are often used to provide a picture of the sample and are called
sample characteristics.
The research hypothesis indicates the expected relationship between the variables.
Demographic variables are characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to
describe the sample. They are often used to provide a picture of the sample and are called
sample characteristics.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 182
37. Which of the following is an acceptable operational definition according to the
requirements of how to operationalize a variable? Depression will be operationalized as:
a. the subject’s score on the State-Trait Anxiety scale.
b. the total number of times a subject uses words, such as empty, blue, sad, or
depressed.
c. a below-normal physical appearance.
d. a self-defining concept, based on the individual’s definition of depression.
ANS: A
Although the study will receive much criticism as to its validity, the researcher has
operationalized the variable in a correct manner. An operational definition is derived
from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to receive sensory
impressions that indicate the existence or degree of existence of a variable. An
operational definition is developed so that a variable can be measured or manipulated in a
concrete situation. They must be independent of time or setting so that variables can be
investigated at different times and in different settings.
An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a
researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree
of existence of a variable. An operational definition is developed so that a variable can be
measured or manipulated in a concrete situation. They must be independent of time or
setting so that variables can be investigated at different times and in different settings.
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Copyright © 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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There is no way to determine what the researcher will actually take into account for this
definition. An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive
acts that a researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence
or degree of existence of a variable. An operational definition is developed so that a
variable can be measured or manipulated in a concrete situation. They must be
independent of time or setting so that variables can be investigated at different times and
in different settings.
An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a
researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree
of existence of a variable. An operational definition is developed so that a variable can be
measured or manipulated in a concrete situation. They must be independent of time or
setting so that variables can be investigated at different times and in different settings.
DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 178
38. Which of the following is a correct statement regarding operational and conceptual
definitions in qualitative studies?
a. Developing conceptual definitions are usually the reason for a qualitative study.
b. Qualitative studies do not use conceptual or operational definitions.
c. The conceptual and operational definitions should be consistent in a qualitative
study.
d. The operational and conceptual definitions are often first found in the summary
and conclusions section in a qualitative research report.
ANS: C
An operational definition is used in qualitative research. However, it can be one of the
parts of data collection and is not as concrete as in quantitative research. The main point
in critiquing the characteristics of the operational and conceptual definitions within a
qualitative research study is that the two are consistent.
A conceptual definition is not the main reason for conducting all qualitative research,
although it may be part of the process of the study. An operational definition is used in
qualitative research. Both operational and conceptual definitions can be part of data
collection and are not as concrete as in quantitative research.
An operational definition is used in qualitative research. Both operational and conceptual
definitions can be parts of data collection and are not as concrete as in quantitative
research.
The conceptual and operational definitions can be found in different places in a
qualitative study, but it is not likely that they first appear in the last section of the report.
An operational definition is used in qualitative research. Both operational and conceptual
definitions can be part of data collection and are not as concrete as in quantitative
research.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 178
39. What is a difference between correlational and quasi-experimental research?
a. Correlational research is less significant than quasi-experimental research.
b. The hypotheses in correlational research are more complex.
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c. The researcher wants to predict what will happen in quasi-experimental research.
d. There are many more variables in quasi-experimental research.
ANS: C
Quasi-experimental designs seek to discover whether an independent variable causes an
effect on a dependent one. Correlational research establishes an association between and
among variables, and the number of variables is based on the study purpose and problem,
not what kind of study it is. There can be significant findings in each type of study. The
complexity of a hypothesis is determined by how many variables are involved, not the
kind of study.
There can be significant findings in each type of study. All types of studies are needed to
expand nursing knowledge and science.
The complexity of a hypothesis is determined by the number of variables are involved,
not the kind of study.
The complexity of a hypothesis is determined by the number of variables are involved,
not the kind of study.
DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: pp. 150-151
40. A researcher wants to investigate the possibility that diabetic patients who are allowed to
cook their own meals will adhere to dietary restrictions better than patients who do not.
What is the dependent variable?
a. Adherence to dietary restrictions
b. Diabetes
c. Dietary restrictions
d. Meal cooking
ANS: A
It is hypothesized that cooking one’s meals will lead to better compliance with dietary
restrictions. Self-cooking influences compliance. Adherence is what the researcher wants
to influence and is the independent variable.
The study population appears to be patients with diabetes, so diabetes is constant and not
a variable. It is hypothesized that cooking one’s meals will lead to better compliance with
dietary restrictions. Self-cooking influences compliance. Adherence is what the
researcher wants to influence and is the independent variable.
Actually, all patients in the population have dietary restrictions, so this is not a variable. It
is hypothesized that cooking one’s meals will lead to better compliance with dietary
restrictions. Self-cooking influences compliance. Adherence is what the researcher wants
to influence and is the independent variable.
Meal cooking is the independent variable. It is hypothesized that cooking one’s meals
will lead to better compliance with dietary restrictions. Self-cooking influences
compliance. Adherence is what the researcher wants to influence and is the independent
variable.
DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 176

 

Understanding Nursing Research: 5th Edition Test Bank – Burns

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