The Practice of Nursing Research: 7th Edition Test Bank - Grove

The Practice of Nursing Research: 7th Edition Test Bank – Grove

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The Practice of Nursing Research: 7th Edition Test Bank – Grove
What: TEST BANK
ISBN: 1455707368
Year Published: 2013
Authors: Grove
Edition: 7th

Product Description

The Practice of Nursing Research: 7th Edition Test Bank – Grove

 

The Practice of Nursing Research: 7th Edition Test Bank – Grove

 

Sample

 

Chapter 7: Frameworks

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is a framework?
a. The abstract, logical structure of meaning
b. A concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements

 

 

ANS:  A

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A construct is a concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 116

 

  1. What is a concept?
a. The abstract, logical structure of meaning
b. A term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity of meaning
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements

 

 

ANS:  B

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 116

 

  1. What is a construct?
a. The abstract, logical structure of meaning
b. A concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning

 

 

ANS:  B

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A construct is a concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 116

 

  1. What is concept analysis?
a. Evaluation of the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework
b. The process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept
c. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage
d. A strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified

 

 

ANS:  D

Concept analysis is a strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified. Concept synthesis is the process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage is known as concept derivation.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 119

 

  1. What is concept synthesis?
a. Creations of the interrelationships between concepts and statements in a framework
b. The process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept
c. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage
d. A strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified

 

 

ANS:  B

Concept analysis is a strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified. Concept synthesis is the process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage is known as concept derivation.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 119

 

  1. What is concept derivation?
a. The process of distilling meaning from concepts and statements in a framework
b. The process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept
c. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage
d. A strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified

 

 

ANS:  C

Concept analysis is a strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified. Concept synthesis is the process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage is known as concept derivation.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 119

 

  1. What is a conceptual model?
a. A model made up of constructs, between which a relationship may or may not exist
b. A set of highly abstract, related constructs
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements

 

 

ANS:  B

A conceptual model is a set of highly abstract, related constructs. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 117

 

  1. What is a conceptual map?
a. A model connecting objects, phenomena, or ideas
b. A set of highly abstract, related constructs
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements in a framework

 

 

ANS:  D

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A construct is a concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework. A conceptual model is a set of highly abstract, related constructs. It broadly explains phenomena of interest, expresses assumptions, and reflects a philosophical stance.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 116

 

  1. What is a theory?
a. The abstract, logical structure of meaning
b. A concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements

 

 

ANS:  C

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A construct is a concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 116

 

  1. An author makes a hypothetical relational statement, linking seven concepts to a central idea, and denoting which ones are causes and which are results. The hypothetical relational statement is called a
a. Theoretical map
b. Point of view
c. Hybrid correlational array
d. Framework

 

 

ANS:  D

A framework is an abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher and reader to link the findings to the body of knowledge in nursing. A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 116

 

  1. A researcher tests the effect of a medication previously used for psoriasis on patients with Huntington’s chorea. The medication reduces symptom severity from an average of 7.7 to 4.6, on a scale from 0 to 10. This change is known as the
a. Direction
b. Shape
c. Effect size
d. Frequency

 

 

ANS:  C

The strength of a relationship is sometimes discussed using the term effect size. The effect size explains how much “effect” variation in one concept has on variation in a second concept. A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. One statement may have several of these characteristics—each characteristic is not exclusive of the others. Some of the variation in a concept, but not all, is associated with variation in another concept.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 121

 

  1. What is the difference between a concurrent relationship and a sequential one, in terms of A and B?
a. In a sequential relationship, A occurs before B; in a concurrent relationship, A occurs independently of B.
b. In a concurrent relationship, causation is clear; in a sequential relationship, causation is unclear.
c. Variable values do not change at the exact same time in a sequential relationship, whereas they change at the exact same time in a concurrent one.
d. Measurement of variables is possible in a sequential relationship, whereas measurement of variables is impossible in a concurrent relationship.

 

 

ANS:  C

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. The amount of time that elapses between one concept and another is stated as the sequential nature of a relationship. If both concepts occur simultaneously, the relationship is concurrent. When there is a change in one concept, there is change in the other at the same time. If one concept changes and the second concept changes later, the relationship is sequential.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluation           REF:   Page 116

 

  1. A variable is more concrete than a concept. A concept is more concrete than a construct. Which one is the most abstract?
a. Construct
b. Concept
c. Variable
d. Measurement strategy

 

 

ANS:  A

A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identify or meaning. At high levels of abstraction concepts have general meanings and are sometimes referred to as constructs. Concepts are often described as the building blocks of theory. Abstract concepts are descriptive but may not be as applicable to clinical practice or research because of their abstractness. To make a concept more concrete, one identifies how it can be measured or observed. These measurable terms are referred to as variables. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. The word variable implies that the numerical values associated with the term vary from one instance to another.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 116

 

  1. Evaluate the use of the Melzack and Wall’s Gate Control Theory of Pain as the framework for a quantitative descriptive study of the frequency of headaches in men, versus women.
a. The framework is well connected to the study’s constructs.
b. The framework is suitable because headache is pain.
c. The framework is gratuitous; it discusses pain at the cellular level.
d. The framework is well integrated with the methodology.

 

 

ANS:  C

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. Frameworks are used in quantitative research and sometimes in qualitative research. In quantitative studies, the framework may be a testable theoretical structure or may be developed inductively from published research or clinical observations. Every quantitative study has a theoretical framework, although some researchers do not identify or describe the theoretical framework in the report of the study. Ideally, the framework of a quantitative study is carefully structured, clearly presented, and well integrated with the methodology. One needs to identify and evaluate the extent to which the framework guides the study methodology. Melzack and Wall’s Gate Control Theory of Pain identifies neural contributions to the perception of pain; its explanation is at the cellular level, so it is an illogical choice for this research. The difference in headache frequency between men and women is best explained by a framework that includes gender differences in perception, metabolism, glucose levels, stress, or something that explains the differences between the two groups.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 116

 

  1. A nurse researcher has an idea that neonates perceive all interactions with humans as either stressors or comfort. She is conducting qualitative research to describe the types of stressors or comfort that neonates typically experience in the first 24 hours of life. Is this a theory, or a model, or what?
a. A scientific theory
b. A substantive theory
c. An idea but not a theory or model yet
d. A conceptual model

 

 

ANS:  C

A theory is more narrow and specific than a conceptual model and is directly testable. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual model, also known as a grand theory, is a set of highly abstract, related constructs. Scientific theories are those for which repeated studies have validated the relationships among the concepts. Middle-range theories, or substantive theories, present a partial view of nursing reality. These theories are less abstract and address more specific phenomena than grand theories do. They directly apply to practice and focus on explanation and implementation.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 117

 

  1. The Process of Incorporation of a Rescue Dog into One’s Home

Wariness  ® Mutual Protectiveness ® Compassion ® Adoption

 

What is this?

a. A relational statement
b. A research framework
c. A theory
d. A conceptual map

 

 

ANS:  D

A framework is an abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the reader to link the findings to the body of knowledge in nursing. A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between two or more concepts. A conceptual map is a visual representation of a research framework. A theory is a set of concepts and relational statements explaining the relationships among them.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   Page 116

 

Use the following Table for Questions 17 through 20.

High to low Level
Highest level of abstraction Construct (general statement)
Middle level of abstraction Conceptual (theory)
Lowest level of abstraction Variable (hypothesis)
Specific way variables will be measured Operationalizations

 

 

  1. “Happiness is a requisite of the human condition” is a statement written at which level of abstraction?
a. Construct level (general construct)
b. Conceptual level (specific theoretical statement)
c. Hypothesis level (composed of the study variables)
d. Operationalization level (consisting of the operationalizations of the variables)

 

 

ANS:  A

Statements about the same two conceptual ideas can be made at various levels of abstractness. The statements found in conceptual models and grand theories (general propositions) are at a high level of abstraction. Statements found in middle range theories (specific propositions) are at a moderate level of abstraction. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. As statements become less abstract, they become narrower in scope. Statements at varying levels of abstraction that express relationships between or among the same conceptual ideas can be arranged in hierarchical form, from general to specific. This arrangement allows you to see (or evaluate) the logical links among the various levels of abstraction. Statement sets link the relationships expressed in the framework with the hypotheses, research questions, or objectives that guide the methodology of the study. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. At high levels of abstraction, concepts have general meanings and are sometimes referred to as constructs. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. A theory is more narrow and specific than a conceptual model and is directly testable. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. The instrument itself is an operational definition of the concept. Operational definitions must be consistent with the conceptual definition and should be accepted methods of measurement used for testing the selected theory.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 124

 

  1. “Chronic disappointment in goal achievement produces an attenuated period of decreased goal-setting” is a statement written at which level of abstraction?
a. Construct level (general construct)
b. Conceptual level (specific theoretical statement)
c. Hypothesis level (composed of the study variables)
d. Operationalization level (consisting of the operationalizations of the variables)

 

 

ANS:  B

Statements about the same two conceptual ideas can be made at various levels of abstractness. The statements found in conceptual models and grand theories (general propositions) are at a high level of abstraction. Statements found in middle range theories (specific propositions) are at a moderate level of abstraction. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. As statements become less abstract, they become narrower in scope. Statements at varying levels of abstraction that express relationships between or among the same conceptual ideas can be arranged in hierarchical form, from general to specific. This arrangement allows you to see (or evaluate) the logical links among the various levels of abstraction. Statement sets link the relationships expressed in the framework with the hypotheses, research questions, or objectives that guide the methodology of the study. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. At high levels of abstraction, concepts have general meanings and are sometimes referred to as constructs. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. A theory is narrower and more specific than a conceptual model and is directly testable. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. The instrument itself is an operational definition of the concept. Operational definitions must be consistent with the conceptual definition and should be accepted methods of measurement used for testing the selected theory.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 124

 

  1. “If you give a raccoon a cookie, he will become a permanent resident on your property” is a statement written at which level of abstraction?
a. Construct level (general construct)
b. Conceptual level (specific theoretical statement)
c. Hypothesis level (composed of the study variables)
d. Operationalization level (consisting of the operationalizations of the variables)

 

 

ANS:  C

Statements about the same two conceptual ideas can be made at various levels of abstractness. The statements found in conceptual models and grand theories (general propositions) are at a high level of abstraction. Statements found in middle range theories (specific propositions) are at a moderate level of abstraction. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. As statements become less abstract, they become narrower in scope. Statements at varying levels of abstraction that express relationships between or among the same conceptual ideas can be arranged in hierarchical form, from general to specific. This arrangement allows you to see (or evaluate) the logical links among the various levels of abstraction. Statement sets link the relationships expressed in the framework with the hypotheses, research questions, or objectives that guide the methodology of the study. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. At high levels of abstraction, concepts have general meanings and are sometimes referred to as constructs. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. A theory is more narrow and specific than a conceptual model and is directly testable. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. The instrument itself is an operational definition of the concept. Operational definitions must be consistent with the conceptual definition and should be accepted methods of measurement used for testing the selected theory.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 124

 

  1. “Intelligence is measured as the subject’s score on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Quotient Test” and “Ability to juggle is operationally defined as the number of seconds, as timed with the research assistant’s stopwatch, that the subject can keep three oranges in the air simultaneously” are statements written at which level of abstraction?
a. Construct level (general construct)
b. Conceptual level (specific theoretical statement)
c. Hypothesis level (composed of the study variables)
d. Operationalization level (consisting of the operationalizations of the variables)

 

 

ANS:  D

Statements about the same two conceptual ideas can be made at various levels of abstractness. The statements found in conceptual models and grand theories (general propositions) are at a high level of abstraction. Statements found in middle range theories (specific propositions) are at a moderate level of abstraction. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. As statements become less abstract, they become narrower in scope. Statements at varying levels of abstraction that express relationships between or among the same conceptual ideas can be arranged in hierarchical form, from general to specific. This arrangement allows you to see (or evaluate) the logical links among the various levels of abstraction. Statement sets link the relationships expressed in the framework with the hypotheses, research questions, or objectives that guide the methodology of the study. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. At high levels of abstraction, concepts have general meanings and are sometimes referred to as constructs. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. A theory is more narrow and specific than a conceptual model and is directly testable. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. The instrument itself is an operational definition of the concept. Operational definitions must be consistent with the conceptual definition and should be accepted methods of measurement used for testing the selected theory.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 124

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. What is a symmetrical relational statement?
a. As ‘A’ changes in value, so does ‘B’; as ‘B’ changes in value, so does ‘A’.
b. As ‘A’ changes in value, so does ‘B’; as ‘B’ changes in value, ‘A’ does not.
c. A pair of statements, in which the second is the same as the first, but the order of the variables is reversed.
d. One in which the number of variables is even, not odd.
e. As ‘A’ changes in value, so must ‘B’ and ‘C’; if both ‘B’ and ‘C’ change, so must ‘A’; if ‘B’ changes and ‘C’ does not change, ‘A’ may change or remain the same.

 

 

ANS:  A, C

A symmetrical relationship is complex and contains two statements, such as, if A occurs (or changes), B will occur (or change); if B occurs (or changes), A will occur (or change). In an asymmetrical relationship, if A occurs (or changes), then B will occur (or change), but there may be no indication that if B occurs (or changes), A will occur (or change). As one variable in a symmetrical relational statement changes, the other changes, as well.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 122

 

  1. What is an asymmetrical relational statement?
a. As ‘A’ changes in value, so does ‘B’; as ‘B’ changes in value, so does ‘A’.
b. As ‘A’ changes in value, so does ‘B’; as ‘B’ changes in value, ‘A’ does not.
c. A pair of statements that represents a relationship that is not the same when the order of the variables is reversed.
d. One in which the number of variables is even, not odd.
e. As ‘A’ changes in value, so must ‘B’ and ‘C’; if both ‘B’ and ‘C’ change, so must ‘A’; if ‘B’ changes and ‘C’ does not change, ‘A’ may change or remain the same.

 

 

ANS:  B, C

A symmetrical relationship is complex and contains two statements, such as, if A occurs (or changes), B will occur (or change); if B occurs (or changes), A will occur (or change). In an asymmetrical relationship, if A occurs (or changes), then B will occur (or change), but there may be no indication that if B occurs (or changes), A will occur (or change). As one variable in a symmetrical relational statement changes, the other changes, as well.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 122

 

  1. What is the purpose of a framework, in a study of hypoxia as a possible cause for autism in the genetically susceptible? (Select all that apply.)
a. It ensures that the researcher treats the subjects with autism ethically during the study.
b. It implies that the study is well-constructed and logical, and that the researcher’s reasoning about causes of autism is correct.
c. The framework’s relationships between autism and other concepts assist the researcher to formulate research questions and hypotheses.
d. It demonstrates for the reader where the findings of this study related to hypoxia fits into all that is known about autism.
e. It gives the reader a collection of connected ideas, from which to think about both the study and the entire research area of autism’s causes.

 

 

ANS:  C, D, E

A framework is an abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher and reader to link the findings to the body of knowledge in nursing. Clear relational statements are essential for constructing an integrated framework for guiding study design. The relationships expressed in the framework will direct the development of a study’s objectives, questions, or hypotheses. The types of relationships described by the statements will determine the study design and the statistical analyses needed to address the study objectives, questions, or hypotheses.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 116

 

  1. How does the researcher know that a certain framework is the correct one for a planned research study? (Select all that apply.)
a. The framework has been tested, using quantitative research.
b. The framework contains concepts that the researcher is studying.
c. Relationships among concepts are similar to the ones the researcher is studying.
d. Grounded theory research generated the framework.
e. The framework helps explain the anticipated or expected research results.
f. The type of research selected by the researcher (the method) agrees with the relationships in the framework.

 

 

ANS:  B, C, E, F

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to the body of knowledge used in nursing. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identify or meaning. Statement sets link the relationships expressed in the framework with the hypotheses, research questions, or objectives that guide the methodology of the study.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 116

 

  1. What are the differences between symmetrical relationships and nonsymmetrical relationships? (Select all that apply.)
a. In a symmetrical relationship, a change in either variable produces a predictable change in the other; in a nonsymmetrical relationship, a change in only one of the variables produces a predictable change.
b. A symmetrical relationship possesses considerably less predictability than does a nonsymmetrical one.
c. A symmetrical relation explains both positive and negative changes in the value of either variable, but a nonsymmetrical one can explain only positive changes in the value of the variables.
d. A symmetrical relationship’s variables both have a predictable effect on one another; in a non-symmetrical relationship, this is untrue.
e. A symmetrical relationship is represented by a curve, whereas a nonsymmetrical relationship is represented by a straight line.

 

 

ANS:  A, D

Relationships may be symmetrical or asymmetrical. A symmetrical relationship is complex and contains two statements, such as if A changes, B will change; if B changes, A will change. The relationship between concepts in a symmetrical relationship is like a two-way street with influence going in both directions. Symmetrical relationships may also be called reciprocal or reversible. In an asymmetrical relationship, if A or changes, then B will or change; however, the reverse is not necessarily true: there may be no indication that if B changes, A will change. An asymmetrical relationship is not reversible (Fawcett, 1999). The relationship between concepts in an asymmetrical relationship is like a one-way street, with influence going only in one direction.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 122

 

  1. A framework about bipolar disorder contains information about the direction, sequencing, and strength of the relationship between treatment of the bipolar disorder and client functioning, over time, because it is a relational statement. What other components may be included, so that the relational statement is meaningful to research? (Select all that apply.)
a. Shape
b. Exclusivity
c. Exhaustiveness
d. Sufficiency
e. Symmetry

 

 

ANS:  A, D, E

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. One statement may have several of these characteristics—each characteristic is not exclusive of the others. The strength of a relationship is the amount of variation explained by the relationship.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 116

 

  1. Which of the following are variables? (Select all that apply.)
a. Sanctity
b. How many times the experimental monkey rings the bell
c. Déja vu
d. The number of speeding tickets Richard receives in July of this year
e. Darwin’s theory of evolution

 

 

ANS:  B, D

To make a concept more concrete, the researcher identifies how the concept will be measured or observed. These measurable terms are referred to as variables. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. The word variable implies that the numerical values associated with the term vary from one instance to another. The key concept here is measurement: can this idea by measured, as stated?

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 118

 

  1. Directional statements are relational statements with the specific relationship between variables defined. These are diagrammatically represented by letters and arrows. The diagram BD means which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
a. B causes D only a small amount of the time.
b. When D is high, B is low in value.
c. When B is high, D is low in value.
d. There is no relationship between B and D.
e. B is smaller than D.
f. D is smaller than B.

 

 

ANS:  B, C

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. The direction of a relationship may be positive, negative, or unknown. A positive linear relationship implies that as one concept (the value or amount of the concept increases or decreases), the second concept will also change in the same direction. For example, the literary statement “The risk of illness (A) increases as stress (B) increases” expresses a positive relationship. This positive relational statement could also be expressed as “The risk of illness decreases as stress decreases.” Diagrammatically, this relationship could be depicted as follows: BA. Diagrammatically, AB depicts a negative relationship and AB depicts that the relationship between the variables is unknown.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 116

 

This figure provides an illustrated example of a curvilinear relationship. What does a curvilinear relationship signify? (Select all that apply.)

a. The relationship is more complex than can be illustrated by a straight line.
b. The most positive value of one variable is seldom associated with the most positive value or the most negative value of the other variable.
c. The value of one variable cannot be predicted if the other is known.
d. A relationship represented by an arc explains a large portion of the variation in the independent variable.
e. The relationship between the variables is statistically significant.
f. An increase in the value of one variable may be associated with either an increase or a decrease in the value of the other.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, F

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. The strength of a relationship is the amount of variation explained by the relationship. In regard to shape, most relationships are assumed to be linear. In a linear relationship, the relationship between the two concepts remains consistent regardless of the values of each of the concepts. The relationship can be illustrated by a straight line. Relationships can be curvilinear or some other shape. In a curvilinear relationship, the relationship between the two concepts varies according to the relative values of the concepts. This type of relationship is illustrated by a curved line, as shown in the figure.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 116

 

This diagram refers to correlational relationships. What does it mean? (Select all that apply.)

a. A negative relationship is smaller than no relationship.
b. A negative relationship occurs before a positive relationship.
c. Negative relationships evolve in a positive direction.
d. The strength of the relationship depends upon its numerical value, not the positive or negative sign preceding that number.
e. There is no strength in a negative or positive relationship.
f. A positive relationship is better than none; no relationship is better than a negative one.
g. The further away from 0, the stronger the relationship.

 

 

ANS:  D, G

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. Researchers usually determine the strength of the relationship between concepts by correlational analysis. The statistic r is the coefficient obtained by performing the statistical procedure known as Pearson’s product moment correlation. A value of 0 indicates no strength, whereas a +1 or a –1 indicates the greatest strength, as in the diagram. The + or – does not have an impact on strength. For example, r = –0.35 is as strong as r = +0.35. The greater the strength of a relationship, the easier it is to detect relationships between the variables being studied.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 116

 

This figure provides an illustrated example of a linear relationship. What does it mean? (Select all that apply.)

a. As A becomes larger, B becomes larger.
b. There is an indirect link between High and Concept A.
c. As B becomes smaller, A becomes smaller.
d. Concept A causes Concept B.
e. The strength of the relationship is large because the portions of the concepts are explained.
f. When A is absent, B is also absent.

 

 

ANS:  A, C

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. The strength of a relationship is the amount of variation explained by the relationship. In a linear relationship, the relationship between the two concepts remains consistent regardless of the values of each of the concepts. For example, if the value of A increases by 1 point each time the value of B increases by 1 point, the values continue to increase at the same rate whether the value is 2 or 200. The relationship can be illustrated by a straight line, as shown in the figure. In a curvilinear relationship, the relationship between the two concepts varies according to the relative values of the concepts. A negative relationship implies that as one concept changes, the other concept changes in the opposite direction.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 116

 

The Practice of Nursing Research: 7th Edition Test Bank – Grove

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