Test Bank 7th-Ed Introduction to Governmental & Not for Profit Accounting by Patton

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Test Bank 7th-Ed Introduction to Governmental & Not for Profit Accounting by Patton

Sample Chapter No 1                                                          

Chapter 1: Governmental and Not-for-Profit

Accounting Environment and Characteristics

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of a nonbusiness organization?
  2. Its revenues do not exceed its expenses
  3. There is an absence of ownership interests that can be sold, transferred, or redeemed
  4. It does not depreciate its capital assets
  5. It does not charge fees for any of its services

            Answer:  b

 

  1. Which of the following activities is performed by governments but not by not-for-profit organizations?
  2. Issuing federal tax-free debt
  3. Receiving grants
  4. Preparing budgets
  5. Providing services to constituents

Answer:  a

 

  1. Government and nonprofit accounting focuses on which of the following?
  2. Calculating profit or loss
  3. Protecting investors from fraud
  4. Demonstrating accountability
  5. Reporting to management

Answer:  c

 

  1. Which of the following is not a reason that governmental accounting is different from business accounting?
  2. Different users of financial reports
  3. Expected long-life of governments
  4. Capital assets are used by governments
  5. Revenues that are unique to governments

Answer:  c

 

  1. Which basis of accounting is used for the basic governmental functions of state and local governments?
  2. Cash basis of accounting
  3. Modified accrual basis of accounting
  4. Accrual basis of accounting
  5. Regulatory basis of accounting

Answer:  b

  1. For which types of organizations is the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) responsible for establishing accounting and financial reporting standards?
  2. Business-type organizations and not-for-profit organizations, including not-for-profit colleges, universities and health care providers
  3. Business-type organizations; not-for-profit organizations; and all colleges, universities and health care providers, whether organized as not-for-profit or governmental entities
  4. Business-type organizations only
  5. All entities, except for those under the jurisdiction of the American Institute of CPAs

Answer:  a

 

  1. A not-for-profit organization performs all of the following activities except
  2. Charging a fee for services provided
  3. Paying dividends to shareholders
  4. Purchasing long-lived (capital) assets
  5. Paying overtime to employees

Answer:  b

 

  1. The Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) establishes financial reporting standards for state and local governmental entities.  An entity possessing the following characteristics should follow GASB standards:
  2. The power to enact and levy a tax.
  3. The power to issue debt, for which its interest is exempt from federal taxation.
  4. The potential that a government could unilaterally dissolve the entity and assume their assets and liabilities.
  5. All of the above.
  6. Only a and b.

Answer:  d

 

  1. For which types of organizations is the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) responsible for establishing accounting and financial reporting standards?
  2. All state, local, and Federal organizations
  3. All state and local governmental organizations, except for state and local governmental colleges, universities, health care providers, and utilities
  4. All state and local governmental organizations, including government-sponsored colleges, universities, health care providers, and utilities
  5. All governmental and not-for-profit organizations

Answer:  c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which entity establishes financial accounting standards and principles for the federal government?
  2. FASB
  3. GASB
  4. FASAB
  5. None of the above.

Answer:  c

 

  1. Which of the following is the most authoritative source of accounting standards for cities and counties?
  2. Current practices widely used by not-for-profit entities
  3. GASB Statements and Interpretations
  4. AICPA Industry Audit Guides
  5. Implementation guides published by GASB staff

Answer:  b

 

  1. Concepts statements issued by the GASB and the FASAB emphasize which of the following objectives of governmental financial reporting?
  2. It should help the chief executive assess the entity’s financial condition.
  3. It should help department heads assess their department’s results of operations.
  4. It should help the judiciary determine whether the government has complied with the law.
  5. It should help report users assess accountability.

Answer:  d

 

  1. An activity that is unique to governments is
  2. Budgeting
  3. Cash management
  4. Levying taxes
  5. Advertising

Answer:  c

 

  1. To what extent do organizations that use fund accounting also report on the entity as a whole?
  2. Organizations that use fund accounting are not required to report on the entity as a whole
  3. Organizations that choose to report on the entity as a whole are not permitted to use fund accounting for internal purposes
  4. Organizations that use fund accounting are required to report on the entity as a whole
  5. Organizations that use fund accounting have the option of reporting either on funds or on the organization as a whole

Answer:  c 

 

 

 

  1. Not-for-profit organizations obtain their revenues primarily from
  2. Sales to customers
  3. Contributions from donors
  4. Taxes on personal property
  5. Taxes on real property

Answer:  b

 

 

Problems

 

  1. (True or false)

State whether these statements are true or false.  Discuss why the false statements are false.

 

  1. An entity is likely to be a governmental entity if a controlling majority of its governing body is appointed by governmental officials.
  2. The objective of a government is to provide services to its constituents.
  3. AICPA pronouncements have approximately the same level of authority as articles appearing in the Journal of Accountancy.
  4. The objective of a not-for-profit organization is to provide services to its constituents.
  5.     By definition, all funds have cash, financial resources, and capital resources.
  6. The objective of a business organization is to enhance the wealth of its owners.

 

 

 

 

Answer:

  1. True
  2. True
  3. False.  AICPA standards always have a higher level of authority than other accounting literature, such as the Journal of Accountancy.  If made applicable by the FASB or the GASB, AICPA standards have Level I authority.  Other accounting literature is at the lowest level of authority.
  4. True
  5. False.  Some types of funds may have only financial resources and not capital resources.
  6. True

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. (Discussion problem on fund accounting)

 

Discuss the nature and purpose of “fund accounting.”

 

            Answer:

Fund accounting is the practice under which an organization segregates its assets, liabilities, and net position into separate accounting entities, called “funds,” based on legal restrictions, donor-imposed restrictions, or other regulations.  Each fund has a set of self-balancing accounts that records the unique assets of that fund and the claims against those assets.  Separate financial statements may be prepared for each fund.  The purpose of fund accounting is to help ensure that resources are expended only for their authorized purposes and in compliance with applicable restrictions.

 

 

  1. (Matching organizational characteristics with different types of organizations.)

 

Listed below are some identifying characteristics of organizations.  Indicate with a check mark (U) in the appropriate column(s) those characteristics that apply to each type of organization.  Some characteristics may apply to more than one type of organization.

 

Characteristic                                Type of Organization        

Business    Not-for-Profit    Government

Has a need for accounting

Operates according to a legal budget

Has equity shareholders

Receives voluntary contributions

Levies and enforces collection of taxes

Revenues are based on exchange transactions

Follows fund accounting

Subject to FASB pronouncements

Is exempt from federal income taxes

Financial reporting focuses on entity as a whole

 

Answer:

 

Characteristic                                         Type of Organization       

Business   Not-for-Profit  Government

Has a need for accounting                                              U                  U                     U

Operates according to a legal budget                                                                         U

Has equity shareholders                                                 U

Receives voluntary contributions                                                        U                    Y

Levies and enforces collection of taxes                                                                      U

Revenues are based on exchange transactions*             U                  Y                    Y

Follows fund accounting                                                                     U                     U

Subject to FASB pronouncements                                 U                  U

Is exempt from federal income taxes                                                  U                     U

Financial reporting focuses on entity as a whole            U                  U                     U

 

  1. (Discussion problem on entity and GAAP hierarchy)

 

A large private bus company in Empire City went bankrupt. At Empire City’s request, the  state legislature established a legally separate public benefit corporation named Metro City Bus.  In the law establishing Metro City Bus, Empire City was authorized to appoint Metro’s entire governing body, and Metro was authorized to issue tax-exempt debt to assume the assets of the private bus company.

 

 

When Metro City Bus went to prepare its financial statements, two questions were raised.  Was Metro City Bus a government?  And if it were a government, how should it prepare its cash flow statement?  Research showed that, when the bus company was a private      organization, it followed FASB Statement No. 95, which required cash flow statements to be prepared using a particular format.  However, GASB Statement No. 9 did not approve the use of FASB Statement No. 95, and instead required governmental enterprises to prepare cash flow statements using a different format.  An article published in the Journal of Accountancy suggested that all business-type activities, private or governmental, ought to adopt FASB Statement No. 95.

 

Required:

  1. Discuss whether Metro City Bus is or is not a governmental entity.  What are the specific factors in this situation that cause Metro to be one or the other?
  2. Discuss whether Metro City Bus should prepare its cash flow statements using the FASB format or the GASB format.  What are the factors that affect your conclusion?

 

Answer:

  1. Metro City Bus is a governmental entity because it was established by law as a public benefit corporation.  Also, its governing board is appointed by government officials and it has the power to issue tax exempt debt.
  2. Metro City Bus must prepare its cash flow statements using the format prescribed by the GASB. GASB Statements and Interpretations rank highest in the hierarchy of generally accepted accounting principles for state and local governments.  Because the GASB issued a specific Statement for preparing cash flow statements (GASB Statement No. 9), that Statement must be followed rather than the FASB statement on cash flows.  The Journal of Accountancy article has no standing in this situation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Test Bank 7th-Ed Introduction to Governmental & Not for Profit Accounting by Patton

Test Bank 7th-Ed Introduction to Governmental & Not for Profit Accounting by Patton