Test Bank 1st_Ed Living in a Microbial World by Bruce V.Hofkin 2010

Test Bank 1st_Ed Living in a Microbial World by Bruce V.Hofkin 2010


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Test Bank 1st_Ed Living in a Microbial World by Bruce V.Hofkin 2010

Sample Chapter No 1                 ­­­
Chapter 1 Living in a Microbial World  

  1. Which of the following is not an example of a microorganism?
  2. a bacterium
  3. a protozoan
  4. a flea
  5. a virus
  6. a single-celled fungus


  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. All living things are unicellular.
  3. All living things are multicellular.
  4. Most microorganisms are multicellular.
  5. Living things are composed of one or more cells.


  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. Most microorganisms have eukaryotic cells.
  3. Most microorganisms have cells containing organelles.
  4. Many microorganisms have cells in which the genetic material is not surrounded
    by a nuclear membrane.
  5. Animals have prokaryotic cells.
  6. Plant cells do not contain organelles.


  1. Cells have the ability to maintain internal conditions within ranges compatible with life. This ability is called:
  2. homeostasis.
  3. evolution.
  4. metabolism.
  5. environmental response.


  1. Which of the following are not composed of cells?
  2. Bacteria and archaea
  3. Fungi and protozoa
  4. Viruses and prions


  1. Metabolism refers to:
  2. the transfer of genetic information from generation to generation.
  3. the changes in the characteristics of living things over time.
  4. the response of living things to chemical signals in their environment.
  5. the ability to reproduce.
  6. the ability to assimilate and use energy.


  1. Which of the following is an example of basic science?
  2. a study to determine the mechanism used by bacteria to adhere to the lining of the intestine
  3. the development of a new anti-tuberculosis drug
  4. the use of microorganisms to digest oil released during an oil spill
  5. a study to determine how to prevent corrosion of water pipes by microorganisms
  6. research into the use of microorganisms as a source of biofuel


  1. Which of the following statements about model organisms is true?
  2. They tend to be slow growing.
  3. They tend to have unique biological properties, very different from other organisms.
  4. They tend to reproduce quickly.
  5. They tend to be more complex and harder to study than other living things.
  6. They are used regularly in applied science, but not in basic science.


  1. Which of the following statements about a hypothesis is true?
  2. A hypothesis is an explanation for a scientific phenomenon that has been repeatedly tested for many years and never disproved.
  3. A hypothesis can never be disproved. It can only be proved.
  4. A hypothesis is the initial observation of a natural phenomenon that leads to a question.
  5. A hypothesis is the question that stems from the observation of a natural phenomenon.
  6. A hypothesis is used to make a prediction about a future event that can later be observed or tested experimentally.


  1. Those factors that are kept the same in the experimental group and the control group are called:
  2. control variables.
  3. experimental variables.
  4. manipulated variables.
  5. observed variables.


  1. What are the primary differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Which groups of microorganisms have which cell type?


  1. Which typical characteristics of living things are not observed in viruses?


  1. Why are control groups necessary in a proper scientific experiment?






Chapter 1 Answers


  1. c
  2. d
  3. c
  4. a
  5. c
  6. e
  7. a
  8. c
  9. e
  10. a
  11. Prokaryotic cells are simpler and usually smaller in size than eukaryotic cells. In prokaryotic cells, membrane-bound organelles, including the nuclear membrane, are not present. In eukaryotic cells, cellular processes occur in organelles, with different activities taking place in discreet locations within the cell. Bacteria and Archaea have prokaryotic cells. Fungi, protozoa, and algae all have eukaryotic cells.
  12. Viruses are not composed of cells. They are unable to replicate outside the cells of other organisms and they have little if any independent metabolism.
  13. In a proper experiment, the effect of the experimental variable, if any, is compared between the experimental group and the control group. Without the control group, in which the experimental variable was not manipulated, there would be no way to evaluate the effect of the experimental variable.










Chapter 2

The Chemistry of Life



  1. Which of the following is a mismatched pair?
  2. electrons: negative charge
  3. neutrons: no charge
  4. protons: positive charge
  5. atomic mass number: protons plus electrons
  6. uncharged atom: the number of electrons = the number of protons


  1. If an atom X has an atomic number of 18, then:
  2. there are 18 protons.
  3. there are 9 protons and 9 electrons.
  4. there are 18 neutrons.
  5. there are 9 protons and 9 neutrons.
  6. it also has a mass number of 18.


  1. When one atom donates electrons and another atom accepts those electrons, a(n) ________ bond forms.
  2. polar covalent
  3. hydrogen bond
  4. nonpolar covalent
  5. ionic


  1. An atom has 1 electron in an outer shell that holds a maximum of eight electrons. This atom:
  2. is most likely an inert gas.
  3. will most likely form polar covalent bonds.
  4. will most likely gain electrons to achieve stability.
  5. will most likely become a negatively charged ion to achieve stability.
  6. will most likely lose its outer electron to achieve stability.


  1. Which of the following compounds will not dissolve in water?
  2. one consisting largely of non-polar covalent bonds
  3. one consisting largely of polar covalent bonds
  4. one consisting largely of ionic bonds
  5. one that readily forms hydrogen bonds
  6. one in which many of the atoms have partial charges


  1. Which of the following statements is correct?
  2. A base is a H+ ion donor.
  3. Pure water is completely neutral and has a pH of 0.
  4. As the concentration of H+ goes up, the pH also goes up.
  5. If the hydroxyl ions outnumber the H+ ions, the pH will be less than 7.0.
  6. Bases reduce the concentration of H+ in water.


  1. When two monosaccharides are joined together, ________ is formed through ________ synthesis.
  2. a disaccharide; hydrolysis
  3. a polysaccharide; hydrolysis
  4. glucose; condensation
  5. a disaccharide; condensation
  6. starch; condensation


  1. The building blocks of ________ are ________ .
  2. polysaccharides; fatty acids
  3. DNA; nucleotides
  4. nucleic acids; amino acids
  5. polysaccharides; glycerol
  6. fats; monosaccharides


  1. Enzymes function by ________, which speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.
  2. increasing the stability of the reactants
  3. multiplying the number of active sites on the reactants
  4. lowering the energy of activation
  5. increasing the energy of activation
  6. keeping the pH constant


  1. The purines of nucleic acids are ________ and ________.
  2. thymine; guanine
  3. adenine; guanine
  4. adenine; cytosine
  5. thymine; cytosine
  6. cytosine; guanine


  1. Describe the relationship between an atom’s stability and its energy. How does this impact an atom’s reactivity?


  1. What factors determine if a substance will or will not dissolve in water?


  1. Why do proteins become less active as they lose their three-dimensional shape?





Chapter 2 Answers


  1. d
  2. a
  3. d
  4. e
  5. a
  6. e
  7. d
  8. b
  9. c
  10. b
  11. There is an inverse relationship between an atom’s stability and its energy level. They are more likely to interact with other atoms (they are more reactive) when their energy is greater and their stability is lower.
  12. Water is a highly polar molecule, because of the polar covalent bonds between oxygen and hydrogen atoms. These polar covalent bonds result in partial charges on each atom in a water molecule; partial negative on the oxygen and partial positive on the hydrogen atoms. These partial charges can attract charges, either partial or full, on other molecules, allowing the water to hydrogen bond with these charged molecules. Consequently, any molecule with charges (ionic compounds or compounds consisting of largely polar covalent bonds) will hydrogen bond with water, and the collective force of many hydrogen bonds causes the molecule to dissolve. Molecules that are composed of mainly nonpolar covalent bonds lack charges, and therefore cannot hydrogen bond with water. They therefore do not dissolve in water.
  13. The ability of a protein to carry out its specific functions is dependent on its precise three-dimensional folding, which allows the protein to interact with other molecules in a highly specific manner. Anything that interferes with the protein’s complex three-dimensional shape reduces the ability of the protein to properly interact with other molecules and therefore reduces its activity. As proteins lose their three-dimensional shape, they are said to be denatured. High temperature and pH extremes are common causes of protein denaturing.





Chapter 3

The Cell: Where Life Begins



  1. As cells increase in size:
  2. their surface/volume ratio increases, and they become more metabolically efficient.
  3. their surface/volume ratio decreases, and they become more metabolically efficient.
  4. their surface/volume ratio increases, and they become less metabolically efficient.
  5. their surface/volume ratio decreases, and they become less metabolically efficient.


  1. Bacteria which have a spherical shape are called ________.
  2. bacilli
  3. spirochetes
  4. vibrio
  5. spirilla
  6. cocci


  1. Which of the following extracellular structures allows some bacteria to resist phagocytosis by phagocytic cells?
  2. capsule
  3. fimbriae
  4. sex pili
  5. flagella


  1. ________ bacteria lose their crystal violet when the decolorizer alcohol is added during the Gram stain procedure.
  2. Gram-negative
  3. Gram-positive
  4. Acid-fast
  5. Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive


  1. Penicillin:
  2. prevents the linkage between N-acetyl-glucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid.
  3. breaks the bonds between N-acetyl-glucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid.
  4. prevents the formation of pentaglycine bridges.
  5. breaks pentaglycine bridges.
  6. perforates the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria.


  1. Which of the following is released by dying Gram-negative bacteria, whereupon it acts as endotoxin?
  2. peptidoglycan
  3. O-polysaccharides
  4. porin proteins
  5. pentaglycine
  6. lipopolysacharides


  1. Membrane phospholipids:
  2. are highly hydrophobic.
  3. are highly hydrophilic.
  4. have hydrophobic phosphate heads and hydrophilic fatty acid tails.
  5. have hydrophilic phosphate heads and hydrophobic fatty acid tails.
  6. are found in prokaryotic, but not eukaryotic, cells.


  1. ________ is/are composed of long, slender protein filaments and act(s) as a type of scaffolding for eukaryotic cells.
  2. The cilia
  3. The cytoskeleton
  4. The endoplasmic reticulum
  5. The endomembrane system
  6. The endospore


  1. Which of the following describes the correct pathway used by eukaryotic cells for the synthesis of proteins transported out of the cell?
  2. endoplasmic reticulum » ribosomes » Golgi apparatus » plasma membrane
  3. plasma membrane » ribosomes; Golgi apparatus » endoplasmic reticulum
  4. Golgi apparatus; ribosomes » endoplasmic reticulum » plasma membrane
  5. ribosomes » endoplasmic reticulum » Golgi apparatus » plasma membrane


  1. Which of the following organelles found in eukaryotic cells is most likely to have been acquired by endosymbiosis?
  2. the nucleus
  3. the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  4. the Golgi apparatus
  5. the lysosome
  6. the mitochondrion


  1. What is taxis as it applies to bacteria? What structure does bacteria that are capable of taxis possess?


  1. Why is peptidoglycan such an attractive target for antibiotic drugs?


  1. Provide a basic description of the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure.



Chapter 3 Answers


  1. d
  2. e
  3. a
  4. a
  5. c
  6. e
  7. d
  8. b
  9. d
  10. e
  11. Taxis refers to the ability of many bacteria to move toward favorable conditions (positive taxis) or away from unfavorable conditions (negative taxis). Only motile bacteria are capable of taxis. In an almost all cases, motile bacteria rely on flagella.
  12. Almost all bacteria are protected from environmental hazards by a cell wall. Peptidoglycan is a key component of the cell wall, and it is especially abundant in Gram-positive bacteria. Antibiotics that interfere with peptidoglycan structure make affected cells vulnerable to various environmental hazards, such as an influx of water which can cause cell lysis. Peptidoglycan is a unique bacterial molecule, and therefore, antibiotics that interfere with peptidoglycan pose little risk to eukaryotic cells.
  13. According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, the plasma membrane is largely composed of lipid and protein. Much of the lipid is phospholipid, which is composed of a hydrophilic phosphate “head” and two hydrophobic fatty acid “tails”. The phosphates orient themselves toward water on both the extracellular and cytoplasmic sides of the membrane, with the hydrophobic fatty acids occupying the membrane interior. This double layer of phospholipids is referred to as a bilayer. Various membrane proteins are embedded in the bilayer. Some of these proteins (transmembrane proteins) span the membrane from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side. Other proteins are embedded only part way through the bilayer. The phospholipids in the bilayer are not bound to each other. The bilayer is the result of the way in which the phospholipids interact with water. The membrane is therefore not a rigid structure, with both the phospholipids and the membrane proteins continually changing position.




Chapter 4

A Field Guide to the Microorganisms



  1. Which of the following are the most closely related?
  2. Two animals that are in the same phylum
  3. Two plants that are in the same class
  4. Two fungi that are in the same order
  5. Two bacteria that are in the same family


  1. The bacteria that causes diphtheria is called corynebacterium diphtheria.
    Which of the following has the name of this bacterial species written in proper scientific form?
  2. corynebacterium diphtheria
  3. Corynebacterium Diphtheria
  4. Corynebacterium diphtheria
  5. corynebacterium Diphtheria


  1. The classification of living things according to their evolutionary relationships
    is called:
  2. taxonomy.
  3. phylogenetics.
  4. taxonomic hierarchy.
  5. the five-kingdom system of classification.
  6. the three-domain system of classification.


  1. Which of the following is true about photosynthetic bacteria?
  2. They are the most primitive of all bacteria.
  3. Photosynthesis appears to have evolved several separate times.
  4. Photosynthetic bacteria all appear to be closely related.
  5. A comparison of rRNA genes in different lineages of photosynthetic bacteria would reveal that the genes are almost identical in all lineages.
  6. All photosynthetic bacteria appear to have evolved relatively recently.


  1. Which of the following statements is true about archaea?
  2. They are in the domain Bacteria.
  3. They have cells walls identical to those of bacteria.
  4. They have eukaryotic cells.
  5. They often are found in extreme environments.
  6. All known archaea require oxygen for survival.


  1. The feeding and reproducing stage of many protozoa is known as a:
  2. trophozoite.
  3. cyst.
  4. vector.
  5. protista.
  6. mastigophora.


  1. Fungi that grow on dead material are called:
  2. autotrophs.
  3. saprophytes.
  4. filamentous fungi.
  5. fleshy fungi.
  6. Zygomycota.


  1. Viruses go through a series of defined steps in their replicative cycle. In which of the following are these steps listed in proper order?
  2. attachment » uncoating » penetration » synthesis » release » assembly
  3. penetration » attachment » uncoating » assembly » synthesis » release
  4. uncoating » attachment » penetration » synthesis » assembly » release
  5. attachment » penetration » uncoating » synthesis » assembly » release
  6. penetration » synthesis » assembly » attachment » release » uncoating


  1. Which of the following is true about viral penetration?
  2. All non-enveloped and enveloped viruses enter host cells via endocytosis.
  3. All non-enveloped and enveloped viruses enter host cells via fusion.
  4. All non-enveloped viruses enter cells by endocytosis. All enveloped viruses enter cells by fusion.
  5. All non-enveloped viruses enter cells by fusion. All enveloped viruses enter cells by endocytosis.
  6. Non-enveloped viruses enter cells by endocytosis. Some enveloped viruses also enter by endocytosis, while others enter by fusion.


  1. In which of the following ways are prions believed to differ from all other infectious agents?
  2. Unlike any other infectious agents, they are acellular.
  3. Unlike any other infectious agents, they can infect many different species of hosts.
  4. Unlike any other infectious agents, are able to reproduce without any nucleic acid.
  5. Prions appear to be unusual viruses that have both DNA and RNA.
  6. Unlike other infectious agents, which are found only in specific host tissues, prions have the ability to infect any tissue in a host’s body.


  1. How are rRNA genes used to deduce evolutionary relationships?


  1. What are mycorrhizial relationships? Provide an example.


  1. What is different about the synthesis stage in a plus- and a minus-strand RNA virus?

Chapter 4 Answers


  1. d
  2. c
  3. b
  4. b
  5. d
  6. a
  7. b
  8. d
  9. e
  10. c
  11. All genes experience mutations (changes in their nucleotide sequences) over time. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes mutate slowly and at a fairly constant and predictable rate. By comparing the nucleotide sequence in rRNA genes of any two species, scientists can deduce how long ago the two species shared a common ancestor. Only after the common ancestor split into separate lineages will rRNA mutations accumulate independently in different lineages. Consequently, many differences in the rRNA genes between two species indicate that they diverged long ago. Fewer differences indicate a more recent common ancestor, meaning that the organisms being compared are more closely related.
  12. Mycorrhizal associations are relationships between plant roots and associated fungi that grow on the roots. Because both the plant and the fungus benefits from the relationship, this is an example of a mutualistic relationship. In the Zygomycota, the fungus supplies the plant with phosphorus, while the fungus obtains necessary sugars from the plant. Basidiomycota also frequently form mycorrhizal associations, in which the plant obtains nitrogen from the fungus in return for sugars provided by the plant.
  13. Both plus- and minus-RNA viruses carry RNA rather than DNA in their capsid. Plus-strand viruses carry DNA that can immediately be used to make proteins, once the virus has gained entry into a host cell. This same RNA is also used as a template to produce complementary minus-strand RNA. This minus-strand RNA is then used to produce many copies of plus-strand RNA, which will be incorporated into newly formed capsids during assembly. In minus-strand viruses, following penetration, the minus-strand RNA is used as a template to make plus-strand RNA, which is then used to make necessary viral proteins. This plus-strand RNA also acts as a template to make many new copies of minus-strand RNA, which will be incorporated into newly formed capsids during assembly.


Chapter 5

The Microbiology of History
and the History of Microbiology



  1. Which of the following was not cited as a possible partial explanation for the decline of the Roman Empire?
  2. pressure from Germanic tribesman along the Empire’s northern border
  3. declining agricultural production near the capital at Rome
  4. the difficulties involved in administrating such a large geographic area
  5. epidemic malaria in and around Rome
  6. incursions into the empire by Arabic tribesmen from North Africa


  1. A serious disease outbreak that affects a large portion of the world is called a(n):
  2. epidemic.
  3. pandemic.
  4. endemic.
  5. zoonosis.
  6. nosocomial infection.


  1. Which of the following factors was cited as a contributing cause to the end of the English feudal system?
  2. a labor shortage caused by high mortality due to the “black death”
  3. a disruption of transport in England caused by a fear of smallpox
  4. a still unidentified disease outbreak that preferentially killed landowners
  5. a series of very wet years that promoted increased mosquito numbers, and therefore an epidemic of malaria
  6. an outbreak of a serious plant pathogen that caused crops to fail, initiating a famine


  1. Which of the following diseases played the biggest part in defeating Napoleon in his attempt to conquer Russia?
  2. typhus
  3. typhoid
  4. bubonic plague
  5. malaria
  6. smallpox


  1. Which of the following statements about the Weil-Felix test for typhus is false?
  2. It relies on the fact that antibodies generated against Rickettsia do not react with Proteus OX19.
  3. It relies on cross-reactivity between the pathogen and the soil bacterium.
  4. When blood serum is drawn from a person to be tested, the serum is mixed with a solution containing Proteus OX19.
  5. Humans are not normally infected with Proteus OX19.
  6. If the individual being tested is positive, clumping will be seen on the test slide.


  1. What was the important contribution to microbiology made by Anton Van Leeuwenhoek in the 1600s?
  2. He invented the microscope.
  3. He was the first to observe microorganisms.
  4. He disproved spontaneous generation.
  5. He was the first to show that a disease could be caused by a microorganism.
  6. He was the first to describe fermentation.


  1. Four flasks are prepared with a broth that supports microbial growth. Broth A is boiled and then sealed to prevent the entry of air. Broth B is boiled and left open to the air. Broth C is boiled and left open, but the flask is fitted with an S-shaped neck. Broth D is boiled, left open to the air, and fitted with an S-shaped neck, but after two days the neck is removed. If the broths are examined after four days, which ones will contain living microorganisms?
  2. All broths will contain microorganisms.
  3. None of the broths will contain microorganisms.
  4. broths B & D
  5. broths A & C
  6. broths B, C & D


  1. Which of the following early contributors to the development of microbiology as a science is not paired up properly with his or her accomplishment?
  2. Louis Pasteur: demonstrated that contaminating bacteria were responsible for wine spoilage
  3. Joseph Lister: developed aseptic technique
  4. Florence Nightingale: introduced the idea of sanitation to hospitals
  5. Ignaz Semmelweis: was the first to show that a specific microbe could cause a specific disease
  6. Robert Koch: developed pure culture technique


  1. Which of the following is not a vector-borne disease?
  2. bubonic plague
  3. yellow fever
  4. malaria
  5. typhus
  6. anthrax


  1. The principle of attenuation discovered by Pasteur had important implications for:
  2. antibiotic development.
  3. vaccine development.
  4. aseptic surgery.
  5. pure culture technique.
  6. the development of variolation as a defense against smallpox.


  1. Why is a large population of hosts more important for the maintenance of a “crowd disease” than it is for other types of diseases?


  1. What is the danger associated with agricultural monocultures?


  1. What are Koch’s Postulates? Explain how they are used to determine the cause of a particular disease.


























Chapter 5 Answers


  1. e
  2. b
  3. a
  4. a
  5. a
  6. b
  7. c
  8. d
  9. e
  10. b
  11. “Crowd diseases” are acute in nature. Once a host is infected, the pathogen replicates rapidly, symptoms appear quickly, and the host usually either recovers relatively quickly and develops immunity to the disease, or dies. For the pathogen causing the disease, this means that if it spreads through a population, it can quickly “use up” its potential hosts, since most individuals are now either immune to a subsequent infection or dead. To survive, therefore, the pathogen requires a large population (a “crowd”) of hosts, to insure there are always an adequate number of susceptible individuals in the population, in which the pathogen can reproduce. Other, chronic diseases do not necessarily require such large populations of hosts, because when a pathogen causing such a disease infects a host, the infection can last indefinitely, reducing the need for the pathogen to quickly find new hosts to infect.
  12. Monocultures are highly susceptible to crop diseases because if an appropriate pathogen invades the crop, the pathogen will rapidly spread throughout the monoculture, causing complete crop failure. A human population that depends on this monoculture is then at risk for famine. Such total destruction of a plant community is rare in natural ecosystems because such ecosystems generally consist of many plant species. It is unlikely that any plant pathogen can attack more than a few plant types. The danger of monocultures in agriculture can be mitigated by growing a variety of crops in the same area, since it is unlikely that any one plant pathogen can damage all crops.
  13. Koch’s postulates are a series of steps developed by Robert Koch to be used to determine the exact cause of a particular disease. When animals are sick or dying from a disease of unknown cause, potential causative agents are isolated from sick individuals. These potential causative agents are then grown in pure culture. Next, experimental animals are exposed to each of the potential causative agents. If one of the potential agents is the genuine cause of the disease, animals exposed to this agent should develop a disease that appears the same as the original disease under consideration. Microorganisms that are isolated out of these now-sick experimental animals should be identical to those to which the experimental animals were exposed. This confirms that the suspect organism is indeed the causative agent of the disease.

Chapter 6

Microbial Genetics



  1. Which of the following components is not normally found as part of a DNA nucleotide?
  2. a nitrogenous base
  3. a phosphate group
  4. uracil
  5. a deoxyribose sugar


  1. The term used to describe the orientation of the two strands of DNA is:
  2. polarity.
  3. complementary.
  4. antiparallel.
  5. 5to 3.
  6. forked.


  1. ________ use(s) codons to specify which amino acid should be added to the growing polypeptide chain during protein synthesis.
  2. DNA
  3. mRNA
  4. tRNA
  5. rRNA
  6. operons


  1. Protein synthesis occurs on ________, which are composed of proteins and ________.
  2. ribosomes; mRNA
  3. operons; mRNA
  4. promoters; rRNA
  5. ribosomes; rRNA
  6. active sites; DNA


  1. The region of the DNA to which RNA polymerase binds during transcription is known as the ________.
  2. promoter
  3. codon
  4. anticodon
  5. operator
  6. origin of replication


  1. In the lac-operon, under which of the following conditions will the repressor protein be bound to its binding site?
  2. when the environment contains abundant lactose
  3. when the environment is very low in lactose
  4. when the inducer is bound to the repressor
  5. when RNA polymerase is most able to bind to the promoter
  6. when the structural genes of the operon are being transcribed at a maximum rate


  1. The uptake of naked DNA by some bacterial cells is called ________.
  2. transduction
  3. conjugation
  4. an insertion
  5. transformation
  6. a point mutation


  1. Which of the following mutations is most likely to prove beneficial to the cell experiencing the mutation?
  2. samesense mutation
  3. missense mutation
  4. nonsense mutation
  5. frameshift mutation
  6. spontaneous mutation


  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. Individuals of the same species have the same genes, but may have different alleles of those genes.
  3. Individuals of the same species have different genes but the same alleles.
  4. Individuals of the same species have the same genes and alleles as each other.
  5. Individuals of the same species have different genes and alleles from each other.


  1. Which of the following is not a difference in the way gene expression occurs in bacteria and in eukaryotes?
  2. In bacteria, but not eukaryotes, RNA polymerase binds the promoter directly.
  3. Bacteria, but not eukaryotes, have non-coding regions called introns in their genes, which must be removed from mRNA following transcription.
  4. In bacteria, but not eukaryotes, translation can begin on a particular mRNA, before transcription of that same mRNA molecule is complete.
  5. The ribosomes used by bacteria in translation are smaller and somewhat different in structure than those used by eukaryotes.
  6. Gene expression is generally quicker in bacteria than it is in eukaryotes.


  1. Explain how RNA differs in structure from DNA.


  1. How does “proofreading” by DNA polymerase occur during DNA replication?

  1. Identify and describe three distinct ways in which genetic recombination occurs in bacteria.


Chapter 6 Answers


  1. c
  2. c
  3. b
  4. d
  5. a
  6. b
  7. d
  8. b
  9. a
  10. b
  11. RNA nucleotides contain the sugar ribose, whereas in DNA the sugar deoxyribose is used. RNA is typically a single-stranded molecule, whereas DNA is a double-stranded molecule. In RNA the nitrogenous base uracil is used in place of thymine. Because RNA is transcribed from only a portion of the DNA, an RNA molecule is typically much shorter, composed of many fewer nucleotides, than a DNA molecule is.
  12. During DNA replication, DNA polymerase occasionally inserts the wrong nucleotide in the growing daughter DNA strand. Subsequently, the enzyme is often unable to proceed past the point of this mistake, because the aberrant base cannot properly hydrogen bond to the nucleotide on the adjacent parental strand. In such situations, DNA polymerase moves in reverse (in the 3’ to 5’ direction) and cuts out the last nucleotide that was added. Following removal of this incorrect nucleotide, the enzyme then proceeds once again in the 5’ to 3’ direction, essentially having a second chance to insert the proper nucleotide into the growing daughter strand.
  13. In transformation, DNA released by dead bacteria is taken up by living bacteria. This new DNA may be incorporated into the bacterial chromosome of the recipient cell, altering the genotype of the cell. The recipient cell is consequently said to be “transformed”. Only certain bacterial species are capable of transformation. In transduction, a donor bacterial cell becomes infected with a bacteriophage. During new bacteriophage assembly in the cytoplasm of the host cell, some newly assembled phage particles incorporate fragments of host bacterial DNA into their phage heads, instead of viral DNA. If these bacteriophage subsequently infect new bacterial cells, they may erroneously introduce bacterial DNA into newly infected host cells. Because such aberrant phage do not contain a proper viral genome they will not kill the host bacterial cell, but if they release the bacterial DNA from their nucleocapsid into the new recipient cell, and if the recipient cell incorporates this DNA into their chromosome, the recipient bacterial cell will be genetically altered, having acquired foreign DNA, with the bacteriophage acting as a carrier. In conjugation, the donor bacterial cell has a small extrachromosomal loop of DNA called a plasmid. A gene on the plasmid allows the donor to construct a sex pilus, which can physically connect the donor cell to a recipient cell lacking a plasmid. The sex pilus then contracts, pulling the donor and recipient cells together. This induces the donor cell to replicate its plasmid. As the two strands of plasmid DNA separate, one of the two strands is transferred to the recipient cell, which then copies the single strand into its own double-stranded plasmid. The recipient cell has now been genetically altered, as it has obtained any genes found on the plasmid.


Chapter 7

Metabolism and Growth



  1. In a coupled reaction:
  2. a catabolic exergonic reaction supplies the energy needed for an anabolic endergonic reaction to occur.
  3. a catabolic endergonic reaction supplies the energy needed for an anabolic exergonic reaction to occur.
  4. an anabolic endergonic reaction supplies the energy for a catabolic exergonic reaction to occur.
  5. an anabolic exergonic reaction supplies the energy for a catabolic endergonic reaction to occur.


  1. A photoautotroph is a microorganism that uses ________ as its carbon source and ________ as its energy source.
  2. organic molecules; organic molecules
  3. inorganic molecules; organic molecules
  4. CO2 ; inorganic molecules
  5. CO2; sunlight


  1. A bacterial species never uses oxygen as a final electron acceptor. However, it has the enzymes necessary to degrade toxic forms of oxygen. Such a bacterial species is an example of:
  2. an obligate aerobe.
  3. an obligate anaerobe.
  4. a facultative anaerobe.
  5. an aerotolerant anaerobe.
  6. a microaerophile.


  1. In a particular redox reaction, when an electron pair is transferred from molecule X to molecule Y:
  2. the transferred electrons were at greater energy and reduced stability with molecule X.
  3. the electrons have greater energy and reduced stability with molecule Y.
  4. the electrons had greater energy and stability with molecule X.
  5. the electrons have greater energy and stability with molecule Y.
  6. molecule X is reduced.



  1. Why is pyruvate reduced during fermentation?
  2. to regenerate NAD+, permitting glycolysis to continue
  3. to produce additional NADH, which can be oxidized in electron transport
  4. to produce additional ATP by coupling ATP production to the reduction of pyruvate. The now reduced form of pyruvate can then enter the Krebs Cycle.
  5. Pyruvate is toxic to cells. It is therefore reduced to a non-toxic form.


  1. In the presence of the final electron acceptor, what happens to the NADH that is producedin glycolysis?
  2. It is further reduced in the Krebs Cycle.
  3. It is oxidized in electron transport.
  4. It is converted into pyruvate.
  5. It is released as a metabolic waste product.
  6. It is converted into FADH2.


  1. If the final electron acceptor is not present, which of the following still occurs?
  2. the pumping of protons across a membrane
  3. the production of ATP by the ATP synthase complex
  4. the final oxidation of biological molecules in the Krebs cycle
  5. the release of electrons to components of the electron transport chain by NADH and FADH2
  6. fermentation


  1. Bacteria that grow well only at very low temperatures are termed:
  2. extreme thermophiles.
  3. mesophiles.
  4. thermophiles.
  5. psychrophiles.
  6. psychotolerant.


  1. A chemically defined medium is often required to grow ________ bacteria
    in the laboratory.
  2. fastidious
  3. non-fastidious
  4. acidophilic
  5. halophilic
  6. microaerophilic


  1. During the stationary phase of microbial growth:
  2. cells are preparing to divide.
  3. production of new cells exceeds cell death.
  4. production of new cells is approximately equal to cell death.
  5. there is no production of new cells or cell death.
  6. cell death exceeds the production of new cells.


  1. When cells catabolize biological molecules for the purposes of ATP production, energy in the biological molecule is released in a large number of small steps, rather than in a single large step. Why is this necessary?


  1. Describe how ATP is produced in electron transport.


  1. Describe differences that would be seen in the growth curve of a facultative anaerobe that is grown in the presence of oxygen, and the same facultative anaerobe grown in the absence of oxygen.





























Chapter 7 Answers


  1. a
  2. d
  3. d
  4. a
  5. a
  6. b
  7. e
  8. d
  9. a
  10. c
  11. When energy is released slowly in a series of small steps, the cell can efficiently use the energy to produce ATP. If energy were released all at once in a single large step, much of the energy would be wasted because cells are not capable of harvesting so much energy at once. Furthermore, much of this wasted energy would be released in the form of heat, which would no doubt raise the temperature of the cell to the point where it could not survive.
  12. When NADH and FADH2 are oxidized by the early components of the electron transport chain, the electrons are passed along a series of carriers, ultimately being used to reduce the final electron acceptor, which is subsequently released as a respiratory waste. As the electrons are passed between the various components in the chain, energy is released as the electrons become progressively more and more stable. At certain components in the chain, the released energy is used to pump protons across a membrane. This causes a proton gradient to build up on one side of the membrane. The protons return to their original position by flowing through the ATP synthase complex, which extends through the membrane. As the protons flow back through this complex, the released energy is used by the ADP and P-binding “head” of the ATP synthase complex, to bind P to ADP, forming ATP.
  13. Facultative anaerobes are able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. When oxygen is present, oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor in electron transport. ATP yield is relatively high. When oxygen is absent, facultative anaerobes rely on alternative final electron acceptors or on fermentation to produce ATP. ATP yield is relatively low. Because growth rate is to some degree dependent on ATP production, growth rate will be faster in the presence of oxygen than in its absence. Consequently, if growth curves were constructed for the facultative anaerobe growing in the presence or absence of oxygen, the lag phase would be longer and the log phase would be less steep when oxygen is not present.


Chapter 8

Microbial Evolution:
The Origin and Diversity of Life



  1. An experiment by Stanley Miller in the 1950s demonstrated that abiotic synthesis of organic molecules could occur:
  2. in a reducing environment.
  3. in an oxidizing environment.
  4. on the ocean floor.
  5. at extremely high temperatures.
  6. at extremely low temperatures.


  1. Molecules composed of RNA that have enzymatic activity are known as:
  2. ribosomes.
  3. RNases.
  4. catalases.
  5. ribozymes.
  6. nucleases.


  1. Which of the sequences below is believed to be correct for the order in which the following evolved?
  2. liposomes » first heterotrophic prokaryotes » first oxygen-yielding photosynthetic prokaryotes » first eukaryotes
  3. first heterotrophic prokaryotes » first oxygen-yielding photosynthetic
    prokaryotes » liposomes » first eukaryotes
  4. first oxygen-yielding photosynthetic prokaryotes » first heterotrophic
    prokaryotes » first eukaryotes » liposomes
  5. eukaryotes » first heterotrophic prokaryotes » first oxygen-yielding photosynthetic prokaryotes » liposomes
  6. liposomes » first oxygen-yielding photosynthetic prokaryotes » first heterotrophic prokaryotes » eukaryotes


  1. Which of the following is believed to be the correct sequence for the order in which the following metabolic processes evolved?
  2. glycolysis » aerobic respiration » photosynthesis
  3. photosynthesis » aerobic respiration » glycolysis
  4. aerobic respiration » glycolysis » photosynthesis
  5. photosynthesis » glycolysis » aerobic respiration
  6. glycolysis » photosynthesis » aerobic respiration


  1. Which of the following facts provides evidence for endosymbiosis?
  2. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA, which replicates independently of the nuclear DNA.
  3. Ribosomes in mitochondria and chloroplasts have a structure similar to bacterial ribosomes.
  4. Chloroplasts have certain gene sequences in their DNA, which indicate a relationship with cyanobacteria.
  5. Both “a” and “b” above provide such evidence.
  6. All of the above provide such evidence.


  1. One hypothesis of viral origin suggests that viruses began as parasitic prokaryotes that gradually lost most of their genetic information and ultimately became completely dependent on host cells. This hypothesis is called:
  2. the regressive hypothesis.
  3. the escaped gene hypothesis.
  4. the coevolved hypothesis.
  5. the transposon hypothesis.
  6. the parasitic hypothesis.


  1. Which of the following points is not part of the theory of natural selection?
  2. Under ideal conditions, all populations can grow exponentially if all individuals survive and reproduce.
  3. As environmental resources become limited, some individuals within a population are more likely to reproduce than others.
  4. Individuals within a population are not genetically identical.
  5. Those with a genetic makeup that results in the best adaptation to a particular set of environmental conditions are those most likely to reproduce. They will then pass on genes for these adaptations to their offspring.
  6. Specific environmental conditions can cause specific favorable mutations to occur, resulting in better adaptation to those environmental conditions.


  1. Under which of the following conditions would resistance to a specific antibiotic most likely evolve?
  2. when the antibiotic is not commonly used
  3. when the antibiotic is routinely used, even in inappropriate situations
  4. when the antibiotic is used, but only in carefully controlled and appropriate situations
  5. when the use of the antibiotic is suddenly curtailed
  6. when several antibiotics, including the specific antibiotic under consideration, are used together


  1. We might expect virulence of a particular human pathogen to decrease:
  2. when opportunities for transmission are limited.
  3. when opportunities for transmission are abundant.
  4. when animal reservoirs for the pathogen are scarce.
  5. in very large human populations, such as a large city.
  6. when it uses insect vectors for transmission.




  1. The idea that sexual reproduction evolved as a way to increase genetic diversity in a population, rendering that population less vulnerable to pathogens, is called:
  2. the sexual selection hypothesis.
  3. the artificial selection hypothesis.
  4. the red queen hypothesis.
  5. the white rabbit hypothesis.
  6. the pathogen vs. host hypothesis.


  1. Explain the rationale for the “RNA world” hypothesis.


  1. Why is it that natural selection can never result in organisms that are perfectly adapted to their environment?


  1. It is believed that mitochondria were acquired by primitive eukaryotic cells before chloroplasts were. What is the evidence for this?


















Chapter 8 Answers


  1. a
  2. d
  3. a
  4. e
  5. e
  6. a
  7. e
  8. b
  9. a
  10. c
  11. All living things must reproduce, and reproduction requires genetic material to transmit information from one generation to the next. For all modern prokaryotes and eukaryotes, this genetic material is DNA. Yet if the original genetic material when early life was first evolving was DNA, there is a problem: DNA can replicate itself, but it requires enzymes to do so. Proteins can function as enzymes, but they cannot replicate. So did DNA, which codes for all proteins, including enzymes, come first, or did the enzymes necessary for DNA replication come first? Ribozymes, which are enzymes made of RNA, may provide an answer to this question. Ribozymes, discovered in the 1980s, were found to be involved in certain processes, including the synthesis of RNA. And since RNA, as a sequence of nucleotides, can also encode genetic information, it has been suggested that the first cells used RNA both as their genetic material and for the enzymes needed to replicate the genetic material. This “RNA world” was eventually replaced by a “DNA world”, because as cells became more complex, DNA was superior for encoding larger amounts of information.
  12. All organisms must be able to do many different things, and a characteristic that is valuable for one task is often much less valuable or even a hindrance for a different task. An organism’s various characteristics represent a compromise between the competing demands with which all living things must contend.
  13. Virtually all eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria, whereas only certain groups of eukaryotic cells have chloroplasts. It is therefore assumed that mitochondria were acquired before the eukaryotes diverged into the separate lineages that gave rise to animals, plants, fungi, and the single-celled protists. Later, after this diversification had begun, photosynthetic bacteria were acquired only by the branch that gave rise to photosynthetic eukaryotes.


Chapter 9

An Ecologist’s Guide to Microbiology



  1. Which of the following represents a producer in a food web?
  2. a fungus that is parasitic on plants
  3. a herbivore
  4. a carnivore
  5. bacteria that break down organic material and return inorganic nutrients to the environment
  6. photosynthetic cyanobacteria


  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. The biomass of producers in an environment will be greater than the mass of primary consumers.
  3. The biomass of secondary consumers will be greater than that of primary consumers.
  4. The biomass of tertiary consumers will be greater than that of quaternary consumers.
  5. Both “a” and “c” are true.
  6. Both “b” and “c” are true.


  1. In aquatic environments, the ________ zone represents the part of the environment where sunlight reaches the bottom.
  2. photic zone
  3. littoral zone
  4. profundal zone
  5. benthic zone
  6. pelagic zone


  1. Mycorrhizal associations would most likely be found in:
  2. benthic marine environments.
  3. a freshwater lake.
  4. a stream or river.
  5. the soil environment.
  6. microbial biofilms.


  1. Most of the bacteria that live in lakes can be classified as:
  2. oligotrophs.
  3. eutrophs.
  4. Gram-positive.
  5. Gram-negative.
  6. thermophiles.


  1. Which of the following statements comparing freshwater and marine environments is true?
  2. The marine environment is generally far more stable than the freshwater environment.
  3. A seasonal thermocline may develop in a marine environment, but not a freshwater environment.
  4. Benthic zones occur in marine environments, but not in freshwater environments.
  5. In a marine environment, the pelagic zone usually has the highest species diversity, while in freshwater environments, diversity in the pelagic zone is usually low.
  6. In marine environments, phosphorus is usually the principal factor limiting microbial growth. In freshwater environments, iron is usually the most principal limiting factor.


  1. Which process in the nitrogen cycle, carried out by certain microorganisms, converts atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which can then be utilized by plants?
  2. nitrogen fixation
  3. ammonification
  4. nitrification
  5. denitrification


  1. Which of the following processes directly require the activity of microorganisms?
  2. release of organic carbon into the environment from animal and plant remains
  3. absorption of sulfate from the environment by green plants
  4. release of organic nitrogen into the environment by dead plants and animals
  5. conversion of organic phosphorus in animal and plant remains into inorganic phosphorus
  6. All of the above require microbial activity.


  1. Consider two organisms, X and Y, which are involved in a type of ecological interaction. Which of the following statements is false?
  2. If X and Y are mutualists, both organisms have a positive effect on the growth of the other.
  3. If X is a commensal organism on Y, X has a positive effect on Y, but Y has no effect on X.
  4. If Y is a commensal organism on X, X has a positive effect on Y, but Y has no effect on X.
  5. If X and Y are competitors, both organisms have negative effects on each other’s growth.
  6. If X is a predator and Y is prey, X has a negative effect on Y, but Y has a positive effect on X.


  1. Which of the following statements about competition is true?
  2. Compared to plants or animals, competition between microorganisms is a rare event.
  3. The principle of competitive exclusion suggests that two organisms in competition will eventually reach a stable equilibrium, where both organisms can coexist and survive.
  4. A commensial relationship is an example of competition.
  5. If you take an environmental sample, and find numerous microbial species within that sample, it suggests that none of these species are in competition with each other.
  6. Compared to animals and plants, the resolution of competition between microorganisms is rapid.


  1. What exactly is a biofilm? Where are biofilms found?


  1. Why does the addition of extra nutrients into a lake often result in a die-off of fish and other animals?


  1. Describe why decomposers are so important in ecosystems.



Chapter 9 Answers


  1. e
  2. d
  3. b
  4. d
  5. a
  6. a
  7. a
  8. d
  9. b
  10. e
  11. A biofilm is a microbial community is which the cells are encased in a layer of polysaccharide, secreted by the cells. The cells within a biofilm may or may not be of the same species. The biofilm is generally organized in such a way that water can circulate through the biofilm. Biofilms can be found on any hard surface such as rocks in a stream, pipes, or dental enamel.
  12. When extra nutrirents enter a freshwater ecosystem such as lake, due to agricultural runoff, or other forms of pollution, these extra nutrients, combined with warmer temperatures, can permit explosive growth of aquatic producers such as algae and photosynthetic bacteria. These producers release oxygen into the water, which stimulates the growth of aerobic bacteria. As these aerobes increase in number and continue to deplete the oxygen in the water, the oxygen levels begin to fall, to the point where fish and other large invertebrates cannot survive. Anaerobic bacteria now increase in number, and as they release metabolic wastes, the water becomes increasing inappropriate for the survival of large animals. This series of events is known as eutrophication.
  13. Decomposers, primarily bacteria and fungi, are organisms that absorb organic material in the environment and covert this material into inorganic substances, which are then released into the environment. They are essential in ecosystems, because these inorganic substances are required by producers.

Chapter 10
The Nature of Disease:
A Pathogen’s Perspective



  1. In terms of how a pathogen might affect a host, which of the following is the correct sequence of events?
  2. contamination » disease » infection
  3. disease » contamination » infection
  4. infection » contamination » disease
  5. infection » disease » contamination
  6. contamination » infection » disease


  1. If a disease is described as a “zoonosis”, what type of reservoir do we expect the pathogen causing the disease to utilize?
  2. human
  3. animal
  4. environmental
  5. both “a” and “b”
  6. both “b” and “c”


  1. Eradication of any pathogen is very unlikely unless that pathogen uses:
  2. human reservoirs only.
  3. animal reservoirs only.
  4. environmental reservoirs only.
  5. human or animal reservoirs.
  6. animal or environmental reservoirs.


  1. For a given pathogen:
  2. the ID50 will always be lower than the LD50.
  3. the ID50 will always be higher than the LD50.
  4. the ID50 and the LD50 will always be equal.
  5. the ID50 may be lower or higher than the LD50.


  1. The time period between infection and the onset of symptoms is called:
  2. an inapparent infection.
  3. the period of disease.
  4. the incubation period.
  5. the recovery period.
  6. the threshold period.


  1. Which of the following statements is true about endotoxins?
  2. They all work in different ways.
  3. They are all proteins.
  4. They are only produced by Gram-negative bacteria.
  5. They are only produced by Gram-positive bacteria.
  6. They interfere with host ribosomes, blocking protein synthesis by host cells.


  1. Which of the following is false about exotoxins?
  2. Part of the exotoxin called the “A subunit” binds to receptors on the surface of certain host cells.
  3. The combined exotoxin (both the A & B subunits) enter the host cell by endocytosis.
  4. They may be produced by either Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria.
  5. They are generally more toxic than endotoxins at low concentration.
  6. They are composed of protein.


  1. In a latent viral infection:
  2. there is rapid viral replication in an infected cell.
  3. there is slow viral replication in an infected cell.
  4. there is no viral replication in an infected cell.
  5. numerous inclusion bodies are visible in the cytoplasm of an infected cell.
  6. we expect oncogenes to be activated, leading to tumor formation.


  1. The portal of exit for pathogens:
  2. is always the same as the portal of entry.
  3. is always different from the portal of entry.
  4. may or may not be the same as the portal of entry.
  5. is a critical requirement if the pathogen is to cause disease.
  6. is lacking in almost all human diseases.


  1. Streptokinase, coagulase, and hemolysins are all examples of:
  2. exotoxins.
  3. endotoxins.
  4. tissue degrading enzymes.
  5. viral cytopathic effects.


  1. How does our normal flora protect us from some infections by pathogens?


  1. What is the difference between biological vector transmission and mechanical vector transmission?


  1. Why are symptoms in a host, such as diarrhea in the case of intestinal disease, or sneezing and coughing in the case of respiratory disease, beneficial from the perspective of some pathogens that cause these diseases?



Chapter 10 Answers


  1. e
  2. b
  3. a
  4. a
  5. c
  6. c
  7. a
  8. c
  9. c
  10. c
  11. Normal flora for a particular host organism are generally highly adapted to their particular host, and they are very good at colonizing and adhering to that host. In their preferred location, these well-adapted normal flora are usually capable of outcompeting any pathogens which arrive, because the pathogens are unlikely to be as well adapted. Many normal flora also secrete chemical compounds that inhibit the growth of potential pathogens.
  12. In biological vector transmission, the arthropod vector is an essential part of the pathogen’s lifecycle, in which reproduction and/or essential development occurs. Consequently, in most cases, the biological vector is absolutely essential if the pathogen is to achieve transmission. Biological vectors usually infect hosts as the vector takes a blood meal on the host, injecting the pathogen directly into the host. In mechanical vector transmission, the vector is not actually infected with the pathogen. The pathogen merely sticks to the body of the vector, and the pathogen does not necessarily reproduce or develop while on the vector. Transmission occurs when the mechanical vector lands on food or otherwise contaminates food or water that is later ingested by the host. Pathogens that use mechanical vector transmission almost always use other modes of transmission as well.
  13. For many pathogens, symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, or diarrhea are beneficial because such symptoms facilitate transmission. In such cases, the symptoms are associated with the portal of exit, and by provoking such symptoms, the pathogen is released from the portal of exit in larger numbers.




Chapter 11

Host Defense



  1. Which of the following cell types can be considered to be part of the innate immune system?
  2. red blood cells
  3. neutrophils
  4. helper T cells
  5. cytotoxic T cells
  6. B cells


  1. Toll-like receptors:
  2. permit certain innate immune system cells to recognize certain molecules that are unique to microorganisms.
  3. are found on the surface of cytotoxic T cells, and are used to recognize infected cells.
  4. present foreign antigens on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells.
  5. are found on the surface of helper T cells, where they recognize antigens presented by antigen presenting cells.
  6. are used by macrophages and dendritic cells to signal helper T cells that an infection is under way.


  1. Which of the following is true about interferon?
  2. It is released by uninfected cells during a viral infection.
  3. It is produced by virally infected cells during a viral infection, whereupon it inhibits further viral replication within the cells where it is made.
  4. It is produced by virally infected cells to activate helper T-cells.
  5. It is released by virally infected cells to induce an antiviral state in uninfected cells.
  6. It is released by cells in lymph nodes to attract T cells to the lymph node.


  1. Which of the following immune system structures and their associated function is not correct?
  2. thymus: maturation of T-cells
  3. lymph node: generation of adaptive immune responses in tissues
  4. spleen: generation of adaptive immune responses in the blood
  5. liver: maturation of B-cells
  6. skin: a barrier to entry


  1. Which of the following is not a correct and necessary step in the generation of a cell-mediated response?
  2. Antigen presenting cells are activated by pattern recognition.
  3. Antigen presenting cells present antigen to helper T cells.
  4. Antigen presenting cells activate cytotoxic T cells.
  5. Helper T cells release cytokines that stimulate activate cytotoxic T cells.
  6. Cytotoxic T cells recognize their specific antigen on the surface of infected cells.


  1. B-cells are able to recognize antigens because they have specific receptors on their surfaces that bind specific antigens. These receptors are called ________.
  2. toll-like receptors
  3. pattern recognition receptors
  4. MHC
  5. IgG
  6. IgM


  1. Which of the following is a good example of how innate and adaptive immunity depend on each other?
  2. the release of perforin by cytotoxic T cells
  3. presentation of the antigen by virally infected cells
  4. phagocytosis of pathogens by neutrophils
  5. the activation of humoral immunity by helper T cells
  6. the ability of antibodies to function as opsonins


  1. Which antibody type is usually produced in the greatest amount during a humoral reponse?
  2. IgA
  3. IgD
  4. IgM
  5. IgE
  6. IgG


  1. During a successful secondary immune response:
  2. the inductive period will be longer than it was during a primary response.
  3. greatly increased levels of IgM are produced.
  4. long-lived plasma cells immediately begin secreting antibody.
  5. the number of pathogens should remain below the threshold of disease.
  6. there will be a stronger cell-mediated response, but a less vigorous humoral response.


  1. Which of the following vaccine types best mimics a genuine infection?
  2. a vaccine made with an attenuated pathogen
  3. a vaccine made with an inactivated pathogen
  4. a subunit vaccine
  5. Both “a” and “c” closely mimic a genuine infection.
  6. Both “b” and “c” closely mimic a genuine infection.

  1. Describe how cells of the innate immune system activate the adaptive immune system under certain circumstances.



  1. In what way can the fever response be used to illustrate the point that response to pathogens can both be protective and harmful?


  1. How does HIV reduce immune function?


Chapter 11 Answers


  1. b
  2. a
  3. d
  4. d
  5. c
  6. e
  7. e
  8. e
  9. d
  10. a
  11. An adaptive response will only occur if innate immune responses alone are unable to contain an infection. When an adaptive response is necessary, certain cells considered to be part of the innate immune system, specifically macrophages and dendritic cells, continue to ingest pathogens. These pathogens are degraded into small fragments within vesicles, and are then bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. The small pathogen fragments can act as antigens, and the complex of MHC and antigen is transported to the surface of the macrophage or dendritic cell, which function as antigen presenting cells (APCs). The APCs migrate to lymphatic structures such as lymph nodes, and they release chemical messengers (cytokines) that attract helper T cells. Once in the lymph nodes, the helper T cells can interact with the MHC/antigen complexes with their T-cell receptors. If the T-cell receptor of a helper T cell does not recognize its specific antigen it remains inactive. If it does recognize its specific antigen on the surface of an APC, the helper T-cell becomes activated, whereupon it replicates into many mature effector helper T-cells. These effector helper T-cells can now stimulate a full adaptive response by activating both cell mediated immunity (through the activation of cytotoxic T-cells) and humoral immunity (through the activation of B cells).
  12. In many infections, certain cytokines released by various cells act on a specific part of the brain to elevate body temperature. In other words, these cytokines stimulate fever. A fever can be a beneficial part of an innate immune response. At elevated body temperature, phagocytic cells are more efficient, and some pathogens are less able to reproduce. Fever, however, is uncomfortable, and is often recognized as one of the symptoms of many diseases. It fever gets too high, it can actually be dangerous or even life-threatening. Thus, while part of a protective immune response, fever, like many aspects of immunity, actually contributes to the symptoms observed during infectious disease.
  13. HIV infects and kills helper T-cells. These cells are central to a proper adaptive immune response. Helper T cells are the component of adaptive immunity that is stimulated by antigen presenting cells during an infection. Once activated, helper T-cells can activate cytotoxic T-cells to initiate a cell mediated response and B cells to initiate a humoral response. Over time, an HIV infection can result in a greatly reduced number of helper T cells. Consequently, although healthy populations of cytotoxic T-cells and B-cells remain, without enough helper T-cells they cannot be activated properly, and both cell mediated and humoral responses decline, opening the door to the opportunistic infections that are characteristic of advanced AIDS.





















Chapter 12

Control of Microbial Growth



  1. What is a nosocomial infection?
  2. an infection contracted at one’s place of work, or at school
  3. an infection contracted from an animal
  4. an infection contracted from improperly prepared food
  5. an infection contracted during a stay in the hospital
  6. an infection that a health care worker contracts from a patient


  1. Pasteurization:
  2. is a technique used to sterilize liquids.
  3. relies on high temperature and high pressure to kill microorganisms.
  4. can be considered to be a bacteriotatic control measure.
  5. selectively kills thermophiles in liquids.
  6. selectively kills mesophiles in liquids.


  1. Which of the following would be most appropriate to reduce microorganisms
    in a wound?
  2. an antiseptic
  3. a disinfectant
  4. UV Radiation
  5. alcohol
  6. any sterilization technique


  1. If the number of microorganisms must be reduced in a beverage that cannot be subjected to high temperatures, ________ would be an effective control method.
  2. pasteurization
  3. autoclaving
  4. filtration
  5. the addition of heavy metals


  1. Sulfa drugs:
  2. act by interfering with cell wall synthesis.
  3. bind to and interfere with bacterial ribosomes.
  4. interfere with bacterial DNA replicaton.
  5. interfere with the activity of a bacterial enzyme.
  6. disrupt the production of mycolic acids by acid-fast bacteria.


  1. In which of the following situations might a bacteriostatic drug be preferable to a bactericidal drug?
  2. when a patient is infected with an unknown pathogen
  3. when the patient is immunocompromised
  4. when antibiotics are being used prophylactically
  5. when an infection is in a well-oxygenated region of the body
  6. when Gram-negative bacteria have infected an ordinarily sterile region of the body


  1. In which of the following situations might a broad spectrum drug be preferable to
    a narrow spectrum drug?
  2. when the patient is infected with an unknown pathogen
  3. when the patient is immunocompromised
  4. when Gram-negative bacteria have infected an ordinarily sterile region of the body
  5. in a well-oxygenated region of the body
  6. when the patient is in danger of going into shock from endotoxin poisoning


  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. Selective toxicity is harder to achieve when developing drugs against eukaryotic pathogens than it is against bacteria.
  3. Compared to antibiotics, antifungal drugs usually have limited side effects.
  4. To date, drug resistance has not been a problem with antimalarial drugs.
  5. Drugs against eukaryotic pathogens generally act by interfering with ribosomes.
  6. An advantage of most drugs against eukaryotic pathogens is that they tend to be extremely narrow spectrum.


  1. Which of the following most accurately describes the activity of acyclovir?
  2. It prevents uncoating by viral particles.
  3. It is phosphorylated by a viral enzyme, producing a false nucleotide, which is then incorporated into replicating viral DNA.
  4. It prevents the release of newly replicated influenza viral particles from an infected cell.
  5. It interferes with the activity of the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase.
  6. It binds to and inhibits the viral protease enzyme, which cleaves large viral proteins into the smaller proteins needed for viral assembly.


  1. Why are antibiotics often added to animal feed?
  2. to reduce disease transmission among domestic animals
  3. to increase the growth rate of domestic animals
  4. to reduce the likelihood of drug resistance
  5. All of the above are correct.
  6. Both “a” and “b” are correct.


  1. In what situations would UV radiation be an appropriate method for microbial control?


  1. What are some of the problems associated with the development of antiviral drugs?


  1. How does stopping an antibiotic prescription prematurely contribute to the development of drug resistance?

Chapter 12 Answers


  1. d
  2. e
  3. a
  4. c
  5. d
  6. e
  7. a
  8. a
  9. b
  10. e
  11. UV radiation is used most frequently to reduce the numbers of organisms on surfaces or in the air. It is especially useful in places such as operating rooms, where organisms in the air might otherwise contaminate surgical patients. Because UV radiation can damage human tissue, UV lights would only be used in an operating room, prior to surgery; not when people are actually in the room. UV lights can be used in a similar fashion in places where crowding increases the likelihood of airborne pathogen transmission. Prisons, nursing homes and child care facilities are examples. UV radiation is also often employed to purify water in water-treatment facilities.
  12. A problem in the development of antiviral drugs is that viral replication is tied so intimately to the host. Because they use the host’s replicative machinery to replicate, viruses offer fewer unique targets for antiviral drugs than other microorganisms do. Additionally, when viruses are outside the host cell, they are metabolically inactive, meaning there are few if any viral processes to attack with drugs. As a further complication, since viruses only replicate inside host cells, any effective antiviral drug must be able to penetrate host cells without harming them.
  13. When a prescription is completed, the entire infection is ordinarily eliminated. If treatment is stopped prematurely, some bacteria may still be alive, and they are likely to be more resistant organisms. Consequently, if they resume growth, the now expanded population of bacteria will all have descended from the more resistant survivors, meaning that the infection will now be composed of more resistant organisms. When many people fail to complete prescriptions, the incremental increase of resistance in each instance ultimately can be a major contributor to the problem of drug resistance.

Chapter 13
Who, What, When, Where, and Why?



  1. The incidence of disease:
  2. is the total number of cases of a particular disease during an epidemic.
  3. is calculated by subtracting the number of recovered individuals from the number of sick individuals.
  4. is the number of new cases of a particular disease during a specified time period.
  5. is the period of time measured in days, weeks, or years, during which an epidemic occurs.
  6. is the average number of new cases infected by a single sick individual for a specific disease.


  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of a commonsource epidemic?
  2. Once the source is identified and controlled the last cases will occur approximately
    one incubation period later.
  3. Once the source is identified and controlled there should be no additional cases.
  4. The time between identification and control, and the last cases, depends on the transmission rate between sick and susceptible individuals.
  5. When a common source epidemic begins, the number of cases rises slowly relative to a host-to-host epidemic.
  6. When a common source epidemic ends, the number of cases falls slowly relative to a host-to-host epidemic.


  1. The likelihood of a host-to-host epidemic is highest when:
  2. the proportion of immune individuals in a population is below the epidemic threshold.
  3. the proportion of immune individuals in a population is above the epidemic threshold.
  4. the proportion of immune individuals in a population is at the epidemic threshold.
  5. anytime the proportion of immune individuals in a population rises above 50%.
  6. the second time a pathogen is introduced into a particular population.


  1. In which of the following types of viruses is antigenic shift most likely?
  2. RNA viruses
  3. DNA viruses
  4. enveloped viruses
  5. non-enveloped viruses
  6. viruses with a segmented genome




  1. A particular type of virus occasionally undergoes antigenic shift. In which of the following situations is antigenic shift most likely?
  2. when RNA polymerase makes a mistake, introducing an incorrect nucleotide
  3. when the proofreading ability of RNA polymerase does not function properly
  4. when a particular host cell is infected by a single strain of the virus
  5. when a particular host cell is infected by two strains of the virus at the same time
  6. when the proportion of immune individuals in the population is low


  1. When a new disease appears, which of the following is developed first?
  2. a case-control study
  3. personal characteristics of the disease
  4. place characteristics of the disease
  5. time characteristics of the disease
  6. a case definition


  1. In the 1999 West Nile virus outbreak in New York City, which of the following pieces of evidence suggested that the pathogen under investigation was not St. Louis encephalitis (SLE)?
  2. The time characteristic was not suggestive of SLE.
  3. There was no mosquito involvement in this disease, as there would have been
    for SLE.
  4. The viral particles were too small to be SLE.
  5. Control measures initiated to control a SLE outbreak were not effective.
  6. The case-control study indicated that this was not SLE.


  1. Epidemic paralytic polio:
  2. was more likely when newborns were exposed to the virus.
  3. was more likely when exposure was delayed beyond infancy.
  4. was most commonly seen in situations where sanitation was poor.
  5. was eradicated in the United States as routine sanitation became commonplace.
  6. has not been observed since the 19th century in developed countries.


  1. Into which category of emergent diseases would dengue be placed?
  2. Category 1: invasion of a new host population by a known pathogen
  3. Category 2: appearance of a completely new, previously unknown pathogen
  4. Category 3: association of a well-known disease with a new pathogen
  5. Category 4: increased virulence, or a renewed problem, with a well-known but previously less virulent or well-controlled pathogen


  1. Which of the following pathogens would most likely be used as a bioterrorism agent?
  2. Pathogen A: an obligate anaerobe
  3. Pathogen B: an obligate aerobe
  4. Pathogen C: a Gram-positive bacterial species
  5. Pathogen D: a RNA virus
  6. Pathogen E: a spore-former
  7. How can a vaccine program prevent epidemics?


  1. What is antigenic drift? Why are RNA viruses more prone to this phenomenon than DNA viruses are?


  1. Describe the design of a case-control study and how it is used to identify the cause of an epidemic.

Chapter 13 Answers


  1. c
  2. a
  3. a
  4. e
  5. d
  6. e
  7. c
  8. b
  9. a
  10. e
  11. For many diseases, a vaccine program can effectively reduce the risk of an epidemic by maintaining immunity in a population above the epidemic threshold. Once the immunity is above the epidemic threshold, there are too few susceptible individuals in the population to sustain increasing transmission. Even unvaccinated individuals are at less risk of infection, because if the proportion of vaccinated individuals is high enough, there are fewer transmission routes to unvaccinated individuals, and consequently their likelihood of exposure to the pathogen declines.
  12. Antigenic drift refers to the gradual change in a virus’ antigens, due to the accumulation of point mutations in the virus’ genome. RNA viruses are especially prone to antigenic drift because the key enzyme involved in genome duplication, RNA polymerase, is incapable of proofreading. The DNA polymerase of DNA viruses, on the other hand, can detect and replace most of the point mutations it may introduce, greatly reducing the number of mutations that enter the genome. Consequently, changes in viral antigens are far less likely.
  13. In a case-control study, each individual affected with a disease (a “case”) is paired with an individual that is unaffected by the disease (a “control”). Each case-control pair should be as similar as possible in terms of age, sex, place of residence, and other factors that the investigators consider important. The only significant difference should be whether or not they are affected by the disease. Investigators then look for an additional characteristic or behavior that is common to all the cases, but is not observed in the controls. If such a factor is found, it can suggest to investigators why the cases were at risk for the disease while the controls were not. This information might suggest characteristics of the disease such as its mode of transmission that can help investigators narrow down the search for the disease agent.



Chapter 14

The Future is Here:
Microorganisms and Biotechnology



  1. A restriction enzyme that recognizes relatively rare base sequences in the DNA will:
  2. cleave DNA into a relatively large number of small fragments.
  3. cleave DNA into a relatively small number of small fragments.
  4. cleave DNA into a relatively large number of large fragments.
  5. cleave DNA into a relatively small number of large fragments.


  1. When DNA fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis:
  2. smaller fragments migrate further on the gel than larger fragments.
  3. larger fragments migrate further on the gel than smaller fragments.
  4. fragments that contain larger amounts of purines, relative to pyrimadines,
    migrate further.
  5. fragments that contain many G-C pairs, relative to A-T pairs, migrate further.
  6. all fragments containing genes with related functions migrate to an identical spot on the gel.


  1. Southern blotting can be used to:
  2. insert donor DNA into recipient DNA.
  3. determine if a specific gene is present in a DNA molecule.
  4. separate DNA fragments based on size.
  5. make many copies of a particular gene.
  6. determine the exact nucleotide sequence in a DNA molecule.


  1. Which of the following is not added to the reaction mix in the polymerase chain reaction?
  2. a DNA polymerase enzyme
  3. appropriate primers
  4. target DNA
  5. a supply of DNA nucleotides
  6. a gene probe


  1. If a gene of interest is inserted into a plasmid, and the plasmid also has a lethal gene and an antibiotic resistance gene, to later identify those plasmids:
  2. the inserted gene must not disrupt either the resistance or the lethal gene.
  3. the inserted gene must interrupt the resistance gene.
  4. the inserted gene must interrupt the lethal gene.
  5. the inserted gene must interrupt both the resistance gene and the lethal gene.



  1. The sequencing of the human genome has shown us that:
  2. the number of genes in the human genome is much smaller than previously thought.
  3. the number of genes in the human genome is much larger than previously thought.
  4. the number of genes in the human genome is about the same number as previously thought.
  5. the DNA of humans is much different from that of even our closest nonhuman ancestors.


  1. A foreign gene is incorporated into a virus, creating a recombinant virus. The virus is now allowed to infect certain cells, with the hope that the foreign gene carried by the virus will be incorporated into the DNA of the cells. Which of the following is true?
  2. The virus is the cloning vector.
  3. The cells are the cloning vectors.
  4. The virus is the cloning host.
  5. Both “a” and “c” are correct.
  6. Both “b” and “c” are correct.


  1. Which of the following is an important obstacle to the routine use of gene therapy?
  2. It has proven difficult to produce recombinant viruses carrying normal copies of a particular human gene.
  3. It has proven difficult to get human host cells to express foreign genes in adequate amounts.
  4. It has proven difficult to identify the human genes involved in genetic disorders.
  5. None of the above is currently an obstacle. Gene therapy is now routine.
  6. All of the above are important obstacles.


  1. What is bioremediation?
  2. the production of genetically modified foods
  3. the use of recombinant microorganisms to produce pharmaceutical products
  4. the production of transgenic animals
  5. the sequencing and study of entire genomes
  6. the use of microorganisms to degrade harmful chemicals or otherwise detoxify environmental pollutants


  1. Genome analysis of bacteria has revealed:
  2. that intracellular pathogens have the largest genomes of all bacteria.
  3. nonfastidious bacteria have smaller genomes than fastidious bacteria.
  4. that the genomes of different bacteria are remarkably similar.
  5. bacteria can, at least on occasion, transfer virulence genes to each other.


  1. What is the polymerase chain reaction? Briefly state how it works.


  1. What exactly is a DNA library? What is a genomic library?
  2. One of the concerns about genetically modified plants is how they might affect wild plants. In what way? Why is this worrisome?

Chapter 14 Answers


  1. d
  2. a
  3. b
  4. e
  5. c
  6. a
  7. a
  8. b
  9. e
  10. d
  11. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used by researchers to quickly amplify a specific sequence of DNA. The DNA to be copied (the target DNA) is placed in a tube along with short DNA sequences called primers, which are complementary to the ends of the target DNA. A supply of A,G,C and T nucleotides is also added to the mixture, as is a DNA polymerase enzyme that is capable of withstanding high temperatures (Taq polymerase). The mixture is then placed in a thermocycler—a device that can be programmed to alternate among various temperatures.
    In PCR there are three temperature stages. The first stage heats the DNA up to the point where it separates into single strands. In the second stage, the temperature is lowered, allowing the primers to attach to the ends of the target DNA. In the third stage, the Taq polymerase copies each of the single strands into double stranded DNA, doubling the amount of the original target DNA. The process is then repeated, usually around 30 times, doubling the amount of target DNA each time. The final result can be billions of copies of the original target DNA.
  12. Once genes have been identified they can be inserted into cloning vectors, which can then be used to introduce the gene into cloning hosts. These cloning hosts, carrying certain introduced genes can be maintained indefinitely. A group of cloning hosts, all carrying different introduced genes from the same organism, is called a DNA library. If a DNA library is complete—if it contains cloning hosts that carry all of the DNA of the organism in question—the DNA library can be termed a genomic library for that organism.
  13. A major concern regarding genetically modified plants is that many cultivated plants can hybridize with wild plants. If this occurs, it is possible that foreign genes that were present in the genetically modified plants could end up in wild plants. These plants might now express the foreign gene, with possibly serious and unpredictable consequences.


Chapter 15

Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner:
Microorganisms and Food



  1. Microbial fermentation of food products occurs when the microorganisms are allowed to grow:
  2. in an anaerobic environment.
  3. in an aerobic environment.
  4. in an acidic environment.
  5. at low temperatures.
  6. at high temperatures.


  1. The fermentation of most bread and alcoholic beverages relies on:
  2. fermentation by Gram-positive bacteria.
  3. fermentation by Gram-negative bacteria.
  4. fermentation by single-celled fungi.
  5. fermentation by filamentous fungi.


  1. Which of the following is an example of single-cell protein?
  2. yogurt
  3. cheese
  4. Spirulina
  5. beer
  6. summer sausage


  1. Of the following pairs of organisms, which two are most closely related to each other?
  2. Brewers’ yeast and Spirulina
  3. Brewer’s yeast and the Lactobacillus used in yogurt production.
  4. Brewer’s yeast and mushrooms
  5. Penicillium camemberti and Lactobacillus
  6. Penicillium camemberti and the Gram-positive bacteria used to make pickles.


  1. When baking bread, all of the following steps occur. In which answer are the steps presented in the correct order?
  2. yeast is kneaded into dough » loaf is baked » yeast ferments » bread rises
  3. loaf is baked » yeast is kneaded into dough » yeast ferments » bread rises
  4. yeast is kneaded into dough » yeast ferments » loaf is baked » bread rises
  5. loaf is baked » bread rises » yeast is kneaded into dough » yeast ferments
  6. yeast is kneaded into dough » yeast ferments » bread rises » loaf is baked



  1. In which of the following products does fermentation of the must occur?
  2. cheese
  3. bread
  4. beer
  5. wine
  6. sauerkraut


  1. If you make homemade wine, which of the following accurately describes the relationship between sweetness and alcohol content?
  2. The sweeter the wine, the higher the alcohol content.
  3. The sweeter the wine, the lower the alcohol content.
  4. The dryer the wine, the lower the alcohol content.
  5. There is no specific relationship between sweetness and alcohol content.


  1. What is whey?
  2. the semisolid milk product produced as a first step in cheese making
  3. the remaining liquid following production of a semisolid milk product in cheese making
  4. the sprouted barley used in beer making
  5. the sugar-rich liquid portion that is produced in beer making, once starch has been degraded and remaining solids removed
  6. the acid that is produced by bacteria during the production of sauerkraut


  1. In what way are microorganisms used in the production of coffee?
  2. Extracts of coffee beans are fermented by bacteria.
  3. Extracts of coffee beans are fermented by yeast.
  4. Extracts of coffee beans are first fermented by yeast. Fermentation waste products released by the yeast are then converted in different products by aerobic bacteria.
  5. Microorganisms that grow naturally on coffee beans provide the coffee with desirable flavors.
  6. Bacteria are used to remove the coating of coffee beans prior to roasting.


  1. Probiotics are:
  2. any microbially fermented food.
  3. food items that are produced by aerobic bacteria.
  4. hormones that are produced by bacteria.
  5. products that contain living microorganisms, thought to be beneficial.
  6. antibiotics added to animal feed to encourage more rapid growth.


  1. Microbial fermentation only occurs under certain environmental conditions. Why, in terms of metabolism, do these organisms ferment under such conditions?


  1. In what way is the production of vinegar different from the production of the fermented food products discussed in this chapter?


  1. Provide a biochemical explanation for why bread rises during its production.

Chapter 15 Answers


  1. a
  2. c
  3. c
  4. c
  5. e
  6. d
  7. b
  8. b
  9. e
  10. d
  11. Fermentation occurs when bacteria are in an anaerobic environment. Without oxygen, such bacteria must rely on glycolysis alone for ATP production, because under such conditions they are unable to oxidize pyruvate (the final product of glycolysis) further. Consequently, they must reduce, rather than oxidize, pyruvate in order to oxidize NADH. The oxidized form of the NADH (NAD+) is required to continue glycolysis. When pyruvate is reduced in this way, the reduced form of pyruvate represents a fermentation waste product. It is these waste products that protect the food item from further contamination, lend desirable flavors, or change the texture of the food product being produced.
  12. Unlike many of the products discussed in this chapter, vinegar is not a fermentation waste. Rather, a sugar containing liquid is first fermented by yeast. The yeast release ethyl alcohol as a fermentation waste. The ethyl alcohol is then converted to vinegar (acetic acid) by aerobic bacteria in the genus Acetobacter.
  13. In bread making, yeast, most commonly of the genus Saccharomyces, is kneaded into the dough to provide an anaerobic environment. Because the yeast are facultative anaerobes, they can now survive on fermentation alone, producing all the ATP they need to survive via glycolysis. When pyruvate is reduced in fermentation, the waste products are ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. It is the carbon dioxide gas that causes the bread dough to rise. Ethyl alcohol will later be evaporated off during baking of the dough.




Chapter 16

Better Living With Microorganisms:
Industrial and Applied Microbiology



  1. The easiest step when it comes to developing a new antibiotic is:
  2. finding a microorganism that produces an antibiotic.
  3. determining the optimum growth conditions for the microorganism in question.
  4. the scale-up process.
  5. improving the bacterial strain so that commercially valuable quantities of the antibiotic are produced.


  1. Metabolites are:
  2. the substrate that is converted into a useful product by microorganisms.
  3. an intermediate compound in a biochemical pathway, the final product of which is a useful product.
  4. the final product in a biochemical pathway.
  5. either “a” or “c” above
  6. either “b” or “c” above


  1. Which of the following statements about primary and secondary metabolites is true?
  2. Primary metabolites are produced maximally during the lag phase of growth.
  3. Secondary metabolites are produced maximally during the lag phase of growth.
  4. Primary metabolites are produced maximally during the log phase of growth.
  5. Secondary metabolites are produced maximally during the log phase of growth.
  6. Primary metabolites are produced maximally during the stationary phase of growth.


  1. If bacteria that have undergone strain improvement are introduced into a natural environment:
  2. they will usually outcompete and replace naturally occurring, wild-type strains.
  3. they will usually be outcompeted by naturally occurring wild-type strains.
  4. they will usually act as predators on naturally occurring wild-type strains.
  5. they will usually serve as prey for naturally occurring wild-type strains.
  6. they will usually act as commensals with naturally occurring, wild-type strains.


  1. Microorganisms to be used commercially usually are developed in a series of defined steps. Which of the following has those steps in the correct order?
  2. laboratory flask » pilot plant fermentor » laboratory fermentor » industrial fermentor
  3. laboratory fermentor » laboratory flask » pilot plant fermentor » industrial fermentor
  4. industrial fermentor » pilot plant fermentor » laboratory fermentor » labortory flask
  5. laboratory flask » laboratory fermentor » pilot plant fermentor » industrial fermentor
  6. pilot plant fermentor » labortory flask » industrial fermentor » laboratory fermentor


  1. Which of the following is an example of an extremozyme?
  2. a microorganism that is isolated from a very hot, thermal pool of water
  3. the Taq polymerase, isolated from Thermus aquaticus, which is used in PCR
  4. a cellulase enzyme, which can digest cellulose, used in a stain remover
  5. a biopesticide used to control insect pests in the garden
  6. a microorganism used in nanotechnology


  1. Which type of organism would be most promising if you were seeking an organism that can digest hydrocarbons, to help clean up oil spills?
  2. a nonfastidious organism
  3. a fastidious organism
  4. an obligate anaerobe
  5. an extreme thermophile
  6. an acidophile


  1. When bacteria are used in wastewater treatment plants to convert hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen sulfate, why are the bacteria grown on biofilms?
  2. To protect them from damage to their cell walls caused by the waste water.
  3. The bacteria that make this conversion can only grow in biofilms.
  4. The biofilms increase the time during which the bacteria can metabolize the hydrogen sulfide.
  5. The hydrogen sulfate adheres to the biofilm, reducing the amount of this chemical released in treated water.
  6. Only bacteria growing in biofilms produce the enzyme necessary to make this conversion.


  1. Which of the following statements about landfills is true?
  2. Decomposition of garbage is slowed by anaerobic conditions.
  3. Decomposition of garbage is slowed by aerobic conditions.
  4. Decomposition of garbage is slowed by toxic chemicals, which kill microorganisms.
  5. Decompostion of garbage is slowed by the release of methane.


  1. Some bacteria release electrons, which can then be bound to an electrode, generating electricity. This process may be used:
  2. to produce cellulosic ethanol.
  3. to produce biodegradable plastics.
  4. to create microbial fuel cells.
  5. to separate valuable minerals from rock deposits.
  6. as a biologically produced hydrocarbon.



  1. In what way does metabolite production by a microorganism often depend on other microorganisms that may be found in the same environment?


  1. What exactly is the biopesticide Bt? Why is this product, which kills garden pests, not a danger to humans, pets, or other animals?


  1. Why does compost tend to heat up over time? Why is it beneficial to periodically turn the compost?




Chapter 16 Answers


  1. a
  2. e
  3. c
  4. b
  5. d
  6. b
  7. a
  8. c
  9. a
  10. c
  11. Microorganisms in the environment often live in complex species assemblages, and sometimes a particular metabolite of interest is only produced when certain species are in close proximity to each other. It is common for one species to produce a metabolic waste that is used by a second species as a substrate for metabolite synthesis. In this case, the second species will not produce this particular metabolite in the absence of the first species.
  12. The biopesticide Bt consist of the endospores of Bacillus thuringiensis mixed with inert compounds. The endospores contain a protein that is highly toxic to many types of insects, including many of those that cause problems for home gardeners. When dusted onto plants, the spores may be ingested by insect pests, whereupon the protein toxin enters the insect’s blood. The result is paralysis and ultimately death of the insect. Humans and pets are not at risk, because unlike insects which generally have a basic pH in their digestive system, mammals and birds have digestive systems with an acidic pH. This acidity denatures the protein toxin, rendering it harmless.
  13. Aerobes, because of their more efficient metabolism, are able to degrade organic waste much faster than anaerobes. In well-oxygenated organic material, the rapid growth and metabolism of these aerobes causes the organic material to heat up. Once all oxygen is used up, the growth rate of these aerobes slows down and the temperature of the waste material falls. Turning the compost aerates the soil, promoting the continued growth of the aerobes, and the faster breakdown of organic material. By turning the compost and introducing oxygen, the growth of obligate anaerobes such as methanogens is also inhibited. With less methane being released, the risk of compost fires decreases.

Test Bank 1st_Ed Living in a Microbial World by Bruce V.Hofkin 2010

Test Bank 1st_Ed Living in a Microbial World by Bruce V.Hofkin 2010