Supply Chain Management 5th Edition Test Bank - Chopra

Supply Chain Management 5th Edition Test Bank – Chopra

$29.99

 

Title : Supply Chain Management

Author : Sunil Chopra – Peter Meindl

Edition : 5th Edition

Type : TestBank

Product Description

Supply Chain Management 5th Edition Test Bank – Chopra

Supply Chain Management 5th Edition Test Bank – Chopra

 

Sample

Chapter 13   Determining the Optimal Level of Product Availability

13.1   True/False Questions

1) The level of product availability is also referred to as the customer service level.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

2) A supply chain can use a high level of product availability to improve its responsiveness and attract customers.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

3) A high level of product availability requires less inventory, which will keep costs down for the supply chain.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

4) A supply chain needs to achieve a balance between the level of availability and the cost of inventory that maximizes supply chain revenues.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

5) Whether the optimal level of availability is high or low depends on where a particular company believes they can maximize profits.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

6) The cost of overselling is denoted by Co and is the loss incurred by a firm for each unsold unit at the end of the selling season.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

7) The cost of understocking is denoted by Cu and is the margin lost by a firm for each lost sale because there is no inventory on hand.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

8) The cost of underselling is a key factor that influences the optimal level of product availability.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

9) The costs of overstocking and understocking have a direct impact on both the optimal cycle service level and profitability.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

10) As the ratio of the cost of overstocking to the cost of understocking gets smaller, the optimal level of product availability decreases.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

11) With reduced demand uncertainty, a supply chain manager can better match supply and demand by reducing both overstocking and understocking.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

12) An increase in forecast accuracy increases both the overstocked and understocked quantity and decreases a firm’s profits.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

13) Supply chain managers are able to increase their forecast accuracy as lead times decrease, which allows them to better match supply with demand and increase supply chain profitability.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

14) If quick response allows multiple orders in the season, profits increase and the overstock quantity increases.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

15) Quick response results in the manufacturer making a lower profit in the short term if all else is unchanged.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

16) There is a cost associated with postponement because the production cost using postponement is typically lower than the production cost without it.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

17) Postponement is valuable for a firm that sells a large variety of products with demand that is independent and comparable in size.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

18) Tailored postponement allows a firm to increase its profitability by only postponing the uncertain part of the demand and producing the predictable part at a lower cost without postponement.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

19) Tailored sourcing may be volume-based or product-based depending on the source of uncertainty.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

20) In volume-based tailored sourcing, the predictable part of a product’s demand is produced at a flexible facility, whereas the uncertain portion is produced at an efficient facility.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

21) In product-based tailored sourcing, low-volume products with uncertain demand are obtained from a flexible source, while high-volume products with less demand uncertainty are obtained from an efficient source.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

22) A supply chain can use a high level of product availability to improve its responsiveness and attract customers, thus increasing revenue for the supply chain.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

23) A managerial lever to increase profitability is to increase the salvage value of each unit.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

24) A managerial lever to increase profitability is to decrease the salvage value of each unit.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

13.2   Multiple Choice Questions

1) The level of product availability

A) is also referred to as the customer service level.

B) is an important component of any supply chain’s responsiveness.

C) increases revenues for the supply chain by increasing sales.

D) Only A and B are true.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

2) A supply chain can use a high level of product availability to

A) improve its responsiveness and attract customers.

B) reduce costs for the supply chain by reducing inventories.

C) increase revenues for the supply chain by increasing sales.

D) Only A and C are true.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

3) A high level of product availability requires

A) large inventories and tends to raise costs for the supply chain.

B) large inventories and tends to reduce costs for the supply chain.

C) small inventories and tends to raise costs for the supply chain.

D) small inventories and tends to reduce costs for the supply chain.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

4) A supply chain needs to achieve a balance between the level of availability and the cost of inventory that

A) maximizes supply chain revenues.

B) minimizes supply chain costs.

C) maximizes supply chain profitability.

D) maximizes supply chain availability.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

5) Whether the optimal level of product availability is high or low depends on where a particular company believes they can

A) minimize cost.

B) maximize revenue.

C) maximize profits.

D) maximize product availability.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

6) The key factors that influence the optimal level of product availability do not include

A) the cost of overstocking the product.

B) the cost of stocking the product.

C) the cost of understocking the product.

D) All of the above are key factors.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

7) The loss incurred by a firm for each unsold unit at the end of the selling season is

A) the cost of overstocking the product.

B) the cost of stocking the product.

C) the cost of understocking the product.

D) the cost of overselling the product.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

8) The margin lost by a firm for each lost sale because there is no inventory on hand is

A) the cost of overstocking the product.

B) the cost of stocking the product.

C) the cost of understocking the product.

D) the cost of overselling the product.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

9) The margin lost from current as well as future sales if the customer does not return should be included in

A) the cost of overstocking the product.

B) the cost of stocking the product.

C) the cost of understocking the product.

D) the cost of overselling the product.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

10) Which of the following is not a situation involving the trade-off between the cost of overstocking and the cost of understocking?

A) Seasonal products where all leftover items must be disposed of at the end of the season

B) Continuously stocked items where demand during stockout is backlogged

C) Continuously stocked items where demand during stockout is lost

D) Continuously stocked items where demand during stockout is redirected

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

11) The costs of overstocking and understocking have a direct impact on

A) the optimal cycle service level but not profitability.

B) profitability but not the optimal cycle service level.

C) both the optimal cycle service level and profitability.

D) neither the optimal cycle service level or profitability.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

12) Which of the following is not a managerial lever to increase profitability?

A) Increasing the salvage value of each unit

B) Decreasing the margin lost from a stockout

C) Reducing demand uncertainty

D) Reducing the level of product availability below optimal

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

13) Which of the following would be a strategy to increase the salvage value of an unsold product?

A) Discarding the unused material

B) Selling unsold product to an outlet store

C) Keeping the product in inventory until it sells

D) Reduce the level of cycle inventory

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

14) Which of the following would be a strategy to decrease the margin lost in a stockout?

A) Arranging for backup sourcing

B) Discarding the unused material

C) Selling unsold product to an outlet store

D) Reduce the level of cycle inventory

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

15) As the ratio of the cost of overstocking to the cost of understocking gets smaller,

A) the optimal level of product availability becomes irrelevant.

B) the optimal level of product availability decreases.

C) the optimal level of product availability remains stable.

D) the optimal level of product availability increases.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

16) With reduced demand uncertainty, a supply chain manager can

A) increase both overstocking and understocking.

B) increase overstocking and reduce understocking.

C) reduce overstocking and increase understocking.

D) reduce both overstocking and understocking.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

17) A company with multiple products, that chooses to delay product differentiation until closer to the point of sale, is using

A) tailored sourcing.

B) quick response.

C) postponement.

D) improved forecasting.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

18) A company that uses a more expensive short lead time supplier as a backup for a low cost, long lead time supplier is using

A) tailored sourcing.

B) quick response.

C) postponement.

D) improved forecasting.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

19) An increase in forecast accuracy

A) decreases both the overstocked and understocked quantity and decreases a firm’s profits.

B) decreases both the overstocked and understocked quantity and increases a firm’s profits.

C) increases both the overstocked and understocked quantity and decreases a firm’s profits.

D) increases both the overstocked and understocked quantity and increases a firm’s profits.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

20) Supply chain managers are able to

A) increase their forecast accuracy as lead times increase.

B) increase their forecast accuracy as lead times decrease.

C) decrease their forecast accuracy as lead times decrease.

D) decrease their forecast accuracy as lead times increase.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

21) As lead times decrease, supply chain managers are able to

A) better match supply with demand.

B) better match demand with supply.

C) increase supply chain cost.

D) decrease product availability.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

22) Which of the following is not a consequence of being able to place a second order during the season for a seasonal product?

A) The expected total quantity ordered during the season with two orders is less.

B) The average overstock to be disposed of at the end of the sales season is less.

C) The profits are higher.

D) The average inventory level is higher.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

23) As the total quantity for the season is broken up into multiple smaller orders, the buyer is better able to

A) match supply and demand and increase cost.

B) match supply and demand and increase profitability.

C) match supply and demand and decrease profitability.

D) match supply and demand and decrease product availability.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

24) If quick response allows multiple orders in the season,

A) profits decrease and the overstock quantity decreases.

B) profits decrease and the overstock quantity increases.

C) profits increase and the overstock quantity decreases.

D) profits increase and the overstock quantity increases.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

25) Quick response is clearly advantageous to

A) a distributor in the supply chain.

B) a retailer in the supply chain.

C) a manufacturer in the supply chain.

D) every step in the supply chain.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

26) Quick response results in

A) the manufacturer making a lower profit in the long term if all else is unchanged.

B) the manufacturer making a lower profit in the short term if all else is unchanged.

C) the retailer making a lower profit in the short term if all else is unchanged.

D) the distributor making a lower profit in the short term if all else is unchanged.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

27) There is a cost associated with postponement because the production cost using postponement is typically

A) higher than the production cost without it.

B) lower than the production cost without it.

C) very stable.

D) equal to the production cost without it.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

28) Postponement is valuable for a firm that

A) sells a large variety of products with demand that is dependent and comparable in size.

B) sells a large variety of products with demand that is independent and comparable in size.

C) sells a small variety of products with demand that is dependent and comparable in size.

D) sells a small variety of products with demand that is independent and comparable in size.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

29) Postponement is

A) not very effective if a large fraction of demand comes from multiple products.

B) not very effective if a small fraction of demand comes from a single product.

C) only effective if a large fraction of demand comes from a single product.

D) effective even if a large fraction of demand comes from a single product.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

30) When a firm uses production with postponement to satisfy a part of its demand with the rest being satisfied without postponement, it is using

A) adjustable postponement.

B) flexible postponement.

C) managed postponement.

D) tailored postponement.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

31) Under tailored postponement, a firm produces the amount that is very likely to sell using

A) the lower cost production method with postponement and produces the portion of demand that is uncertain using postponement.

B) the lower cost production method without postponement and produces the portion of demand that is uncertain using postponement.

C) the higher cost production method with postponement and produces the portion of demand that is uncertain using postponement.

D) the higher cost production method without postponement and produces the portion of demand that is uncertain using postponement.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

32) In tailored sourcing, firms use a combination of two supply sources,

A) one focusing on cost but unable to handle uncertainty well, and the other focusing on flexibility to handle uncertainty, but at a higher cost.

B) one focusing on cost and able to handle uncertainty well, and the other focusing on flexibility to handle uncertainty, but at a higher cost.

C) one focusing on cost but unable to handle uncertainty well, and the other focusing on flexibility to handle uncertainty at a lower cost.

D) one focusing on cost and able to handle uncertainty well, and the other focusing on flexibility to handle uncertainty at a lower cost.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

33) In product-based tailored sourcing

A) low-volume products with uncertain demand are obtained from a flexible source.

B) high-volume products with less demand uncertainty are obtained from an efficient source.

C) high-volume products with less demand uncertainty are obtained from a flexible source.

D) A and B only

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

34) The level of product availability, also referred to as the ________, is one of the primary measures of a supply chain’s responsiveness.

A) no stock out level

B) reliability level

C) customer service level

D) logistics measure

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

35) A high level of product availability requires ________, which raises supply chain costs.

A) large inventories

B) increased revenues

C) reduced costs

D) understocking the product

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

36) A manager can reduce demand uncertainty via the following means EXCEPT

A) lengthened forecasting window.

B) quick response.

C) postponement.

D) tailored sourcing.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

37) ________ is the set of actions a supply chain takes to reduce the replenishment lead time.

A) Lengthened forecasting window

B) Quick response

C) Postponement

D) Tailored sourcing

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

38) ________ allows a firm to increase profits and better match supply and demand if the firm produces a large variety of products whose demand is unpredictable, not positively correlated, and is of about the same size.

A) Shortened forecasting window

B) Quick response

C) Postponement

D) Tailored sourcing

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

39) ________ may reduce overall profits for a firm if a single product contributes the majority of the demand.

A) Shortened forecasting window

B) Quick response

C) Postponement

D) Tailored sourcing

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

40) In volume-based tailored sourcing

A) the predictable part of a product’s demand is produced at an efficient facility.

B) the uncertain portion is produced at an efficient facility.

C) the predictable part of a product’s demand is produced at a flexible facility.

D) the predictable part of a product’s demand is outsourced.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

41) The level of product availability, also referred to as the ________, is one of the primary measures of a supply chain’s responsiveness.

A) no stock out level

B) reliability level

C) customer service level

D) logistics measure

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

42) A high level of product availability requires ________, which raises supply chain costs.

A) large inventories

B) increased revenues

C) reduced costs

D) understocking the product

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

43) A manager can reduce demand uncertainty via the following means EXCEPT

A) lengthened forecasting window.

B) quick response.

C) postponement.

D) tailored sourcing.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

44) ________ is the set of actions a supply chain takes to reduce the replenishment lead time.

A) Lengthened forecasting window

B) Quick response

C) Postponement

D) Tailored sourcing

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

45) ________ allows a firm to increase profits and better match supply and demand if the firm produces a large variety of products whose demand is unpredictable, not positively correlated, and is of about the same size.

A) Shortened forecasting window

B) Quick response

C) Postponement

D) Tailored sourcing

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

46) ________ may reduce overall profits for a firm if a single product contributes the majority of the demand.

A) Shortened forecasting window

B) Quick response

C) Postponement

D) Tailored sourcing

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

47) In volume-based tailored sourcing

A) the predictable part of a product’s demand is produced at an efficient facility.

B) the uncertain portion is produced at an efficient facility.

C) the predictable part of a product’s demand is produced at a flexible facility.

D) the predictable part of a product’s demand is outsourced.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

13.3   Essay Questions

1) Explain the relationship between product availability and supply chain profitability.

Answer:  The level of product availability is measured using the cycle service level or the fill rate, which are metrics for the amount of customer demand satisfied from available inventory. The level of product availability is also referred to as the customer service level. The level of product availability is an important component of any supply chain’s responsiveness. A supply chain can use a high level of product availability to improve its responsiveness and attract customers. This increases revenues for the supply chain by increasing sales through high product availability when customers come to make a purchase. However, a high level of product availability requires large inventories, and large inventories tend to raise costs for the supply chain. Therefore, a supply chain needs to achieve a balance between the level of availability and the cost of inventory. This optimal level of product availability is one that maximizes supply chain profitability. Whether the optimal level of availability is high or low depends on where a particular company believes they can maximize profits.

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

2) Describe the two key factors that influence the optimal level of product availability within a supply chain.

Answer:  The two key factors that influence the optimal level of product availability are:

∙ Cost of overstocking the product

∙ Cost of understocking the product

The cost of overstocking is denoted by Co and is the loss incurred by a firm for each unsold unit at the end of the selling season. The cost of understocking is denoted by Cu and is the margin lost by a firm for each lost sale because there is no inventory on hand. The cost of understocking should include the margin lost from current as well as future sales if the customer does not return. The costs of overstocking and understocking have a direct impact on both the optimal cycle service level and profitability.

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Importance of the Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

3) Decribe managerial levers to increase profitability within a supply chain.

Answer:  Three managerial levers to increase profitability are:

1. Increasing the salvage value of each unit increases profitability (as well as the optimal cycle service level).

2. Decreasing the margin lost from a stockout increases profitability.

3. Reducing demand uncertainty.

One strategy to increase the salvage value of an unsold product would be selling unsold product to an outlet store.

Strategies to decrease the margin lost in a stockout include arranging for backup sourcing (that may be more expensive) so customers are not lost forever and purchasing product from a competitor on the open market.

As the ratio of the cost of overstocking to the cost of understocking gets smaller, the optimal level of product availability increases. This fact explains the difference in the level of product availability between a high-end store and a discount store. The high-end store has higher margins and thus a higher cost of understocking. It should thus provide a higher level of product availability than a discount store with lower margins, and as a result, a lower cost of stocking out.

The reduction of demand uncertainty is a significant managerial lever to improve supply chain profitability. With reduced demand uncertainty, a supply chain manager can better match supply and demand by reducing both overstocking and understocking. A manager can reduce demand uncertainty via the following means:

1. Improved forecasting: Use better market intelligence and collaboration to reduce demand uncertainty.

2. Quick response: Reduce replenishment lead time so that multiple orders may be placed in the selling season.

3. Postponement: In a multiproduct setting, postpone product differentiation until closer to the point of sale.

4. Tailored sourcing: Use a more expensive short lead time supplier as a backup for a low cost, long lead time supplier.

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

4) Describe the approaches a manager can use to reduce demand uncertainty.

Answer:

An increase in forecast accuracy decreases both the overstocked and understocked quantity and increases a firm’s profits.

Quick response is the set of actions a supply chain takes that lead to a reduction in the replenishment lead time. Supply chain managers are able to increase their forecast accuracy as lead times decrease, which allows them to better match supply with demand and increase supply chain profitability. If quick response allows multiple orders in the season, profits increase and the overstock quantity decreases.

Postponement allows a firm to increase profits and better match supply and demand if the firm produces a large variety of products whose demand is not positively correlated and is of about the same size. There is a cost associated with postponement because the production cost using postponement is typically higher than the production cost without it.

In tailored sourcing, firms use a combination of two supply sources, one focusing on cost but unable to handle uncertainty well, and the other focusing on flexibility to handle uncertainty, but at a higher cost. For tailored sourcing to be effective, having supply sources where one serves as the backup to the other is not sufficient.

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

5) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of quick response.

Answer:  There are three important consequences of being able to place a second order in the season.

1. The expected total quantity ordered during the season with two orders is less than that with a single order for the same cycle service level. In other words, it is possible to provide the same level of product availability to the customer with less inventory if a second follow-up order is allowed in the sales season.

2. The average overstock to be disposed of at the end of the sales season is less if two orders are allowed.

3. The profits are higher when a second order is allowed during the sales season.

In other words, as the total quantity for the season is broken up into multiple smaller orders, the buyer is better able to match supply and demand and increase profitability. If quick response allows multiple orders in the season, profits increase and the overstock quantity decreases.

Quick response is clearly advantageous to a retailer in the supply chain,  with one caveat. As the manufacturer reduces replenishment lead times, allowing for a second order, we have seen that the retailer’s order size drops. In effect, the manufacturer sells less to the retailer. Thus, quick response results in the manufacturer making a lower profit in the short term if all else is unchanged. This is an important point to consider, because decreasing replenishment lead times requires tremendous effort from the manufacturer, yet seems to benefit the retailer at the expense of the manufacturer. The benefits resulting from quick response should be shared appropriately across the supply chain.

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

6) Explain how tailored postponement can improve profitability.

Answer:  In tailored postponement, a firm uses production with postponement to satisfy a part of its demand, with the rest being satisfied without postponement. Tailored postponement produces higher profits than when no postponement is used or all products are manufactured using postponement. Under tailored postponement, a firm produces the amount that is very likely to sell using the lower cost production method without postponement. The firm produces the portion of demand that is uncertain using postponement. On the portion of the demand that is certain, postponement provides little value in terms of increased forecast accuracy. The firm thus produces it using the lower cost method to lower manufacturing cost. On the portion of demand that is uncertain, postponement significantly improves forecast accuracy. The firm is thus willing to incur the increased production cost to achieve the benefit from the improved matching of supply and demand. Tailored postponement allows a firm to increase its profitability by only postponing the uncertain part of the demand and producing the predictable part at a lower cost without postponement.

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

7) Explain how tailored sourcing can be used to improve profitability.

Answer:  In tailored sourcing, firms use a combination of two supply sources, one focusing on cost but unable to handle uncertainty well, and the other focusing on flexibility to handle uncertainty, but at a higher cost. For tailored sourcing to be effective, having supply sources where one serves as the backup to the other is not sufficient. The two sources must focus on different capabilities. The low-cost source must focus on being efficient and should only be required to supply the predictable portion of the demand. The flexible source should focus on being responsive and be required to supply the uncertain portion of the demand. As a result, tailored sourcing allows a firm to increase its profits and better match supply and demand. The value of tailored sourcing depends on the reduction in cost that can be achieved as a result of one source facing no variability. If this benefit is small, tailored sourcing may not be ideal because of the added complexity of implementation. Tailored sourcing may be volume-based or product-based depending on the source of uncertainty.

In volume-based tailored sourcing, the predictable part of a product’s demand is produced at an efficient facility, whereas the uncertain portion is produced at a flexible facility.

In product-based tailored sourcing, low-volume products with uncertain demand are obtained from a flexible source, while high-volume products with less demand uncertainty are obtained from an efficient source. Product-based tailored sourcing may be implemented with a flexible facility focusing on new products, and efficient facilities focusing on the well-established products.

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.3 Managerial Levers to Improve Supply Chain Profitability

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

8) A manufacturer of lawn care equipment has introduced a new product. The anticipated demand is normally distributed with a mean of μ = 100 and a standard deviation of σ = 50. Each unit costs $75 to manufacture and the introductory price is to be $125 to achieve this level of sales. Any unsold units at the end of the season are unlikely to be very valuable and will be disposed of in a fire sale for $25 each. It costs $10 to hold a unit in inventory for the entire season. What is the cost of overstocking? What is the cost of understocking? What is the optimal cycle service level? How many units should be manufactured for sale?

Answer:

Co = c – s

= $75 – $15

= $60

Cu = p – c

= $125 – $75

= $50

CSL* = Cu/(Cu + Co)

= 50/(50 + 60)

= .4545 ≈ .45

O* = NORMINV(CSL*, μ, σ)

= NORMINV(0.45, 100, 50)

= 93.71693 ≈ 94

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Use of Information Technology

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

9) In the previous problem, the manufacturer performs additional market research. Based on this research, they determine that they can increase the price to $150 and are able to reduce the standard deviation of the forecast to σ = 30. At the same time, they have made an arrangement with an outlet store that will purchase unsold equipment for $60 each. How will these changes affect the cost of overstocking, cost of understocking, optimal cycle service level and optimal order size?

Answer:

Co = c – s

= $75 – $50

= $25

Cu = p – c

= $150 – $75

= $75

CSL* = Cu/(Cu + Co)

= 75/(75 + 25)

= .75

O* = NORMINV(CSL*, μ, σ)

= NORMINV(0.75, 100, 30)

= 120.2347 ≈ 120

The change in price increases the cost of understocking. The increase in the salvage value reduces the cost of overstocking. Both of these changes will make it more profitable to increase product availability, which is seen in the increase in the optimal cycle service level. The reduction in standard deviation is the result of a more accurate forecast, which means that less excess inventory is needed to maintain the optimal cycle service level.

Diff: 3

Topic:  13.2 Factors Affecting Optimal Level of Product Availability

AACSB:  Use of Information Technology

Learning Outcome:  Compare common approaches to supply chain design

13- PAGE   \* MERGEFORMAT 2

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

 

Supply Chain Management 5th Edition Test Bank – Chopra

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