7Th_Ed Test Bank Solution Manual Human Anatomy by Marieb_Wilhelm_Mallatt
CHAPTER 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues
Lecture and Demonstration
1. Locate the major cartilaginous structures of the adult human body, and explain the functional
properties of cartilage tissue.
2. Compare the structure, functions, and locations of the three kinds of cartilage tissue.
3. Explain how cartilage grows.
4. Describe the functions of the bony skeleton and of bone tissue.
5. Describe the structure of bone tissue and the functions of its organic and inorganic
6. Describe the gross anatomy of a typical long bone and a typical flat bone.
7. Explain how bones withstand tension and compression.
8. Describe the types of markings found on bones.
9. Describe the histology of compact and spongy bone.
10. Compare and contrast the two types of bone formations: intramembranous and endochondral
11. Describe how endochondral bones grow at their epiphyseal plates.
12. Discuss how bone tissue is remodeled within the skeleton.
13. Explain the steps in the healing of bone fractures.
14. Relate the disease processes that cause osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, and osteosarcoma
to what you have learned about the structure, composition, and growth of bone
15. Identify the symptoms and treatments for each of these diseases.
Suggested Lecture Outline
I. Cartilages (pp. 124–127, Figs. 6.1, 6.2)
A. Cartilages are resilient, avascular tissues that lack innervation. (p. 125)
B. Cartilages are located in specific locations throughout the human body. (pp. 124–125)
1. Perichondrium surrounds cartilages and resists outward expansion and aids in growth
C. The three types of cartilage are elastic, hyaline (most abundant), and fibrocartilage.
60 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
D. Cartilages grow in two ways: appositional growth and interstitial growth. (p. 127)
1. Appositional growth occurs when chondroblasts from surrounding perichondrium
produce new cartilage tissue by actively secreting matrix.
2. Interstitial growth occurs when chondrocytes within the cartilage divide and secrete
E. Cartilage stops growing in the late teens and regenerates poorly after that time. (p. 000)
F. Calcified cartilage is a sign of aging; however, it remains a distinct tissue and is not bone.
II. Bones (pp. 127–143, Figs. 6.3–6.15, Tables 6.1, 6.2)
A. Bones of the skeleton are considered organs because they contain different types of
tissues. (p. 127)
B. Functions of bones include the following: (p. 127)
1. Support (give the body shape)
2. Movement (serve as levers for muscles to pull on)
3. Protection (protect soft organs)
4. Mineral storage (store calcium and phosphate)
5. Blood cell formation and energy storage (contain red bone marrow, the hematopoietic
tissue that makes blood cells, and yellow bone marrow for fat storage)
6. Energy metabolism (osteoblasts secrete osteocalcin)
C. Bone tissue consists of organic and inorganic components. (pp. 127–128)
1. Bone is composed of 35% organic components and 65% inorganic mineral salts.
D. Cells in bone tissue maintain the integrity of bone tissue.
1. Osteogenic cells are the stem cells that differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts.
2. Osteoblasts actively produce and secrete the ground substance and collagen fibers.
Matrix secreted by osteoblasts is termed osteoid.
3. Osteocytes are mature bone cells that are completely surrounded by osteoid.
4. Osteoclasts are cells responsible for resorption of bone. Osteoclasts derive from a
lineage of white blood cells.
E. Gross anatomy of bones classifies them according to shape: long, short, flat, or irregular.
(pp. 128–132, Fig. 6.3)
1. Long bones are longer than wide, with a definite diaphysis and two epiphyses; all limb
bones are long bones except patellae, carpals, and tarsals.
2. Short bones are somewhat cube-shaped and include the carpals and tarsals. Sesamoid
bones, including the patellae, are a special type of short bone that forms within
3. Flat bones are thin, flattened, often curved bones that include most skull bones, the
sternum, scapulae, and ribs.
4. Irregular bones do not fit any of the other categories and have complicated shapes.
Vertebrae and coxae are irregular bones.
F. Compact bone is the dense outer layer of bone; internal to this is spongy bone.
(p. 129, Figs. 6.4–6.5, Table 6.1)
G. Structures of typical long bones: (pp. 129–131, Fig 6.4)
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1. Diaphysis forms the “shaft” of a long bone; epiphyses form the proximal and distal
ends of a long bone.
2. Blood vessels feed bone tissue through the nutrient foramen.
3. The medullary cavity is located along the center of a long bone and contains yellow
4. Periosteum is a connective tissue covering the external surface of the diaphysis of a
long bone; endosteum covers the internal surface of a long bone.
H. Structures of short, irregular, and flat bones are similar to those of long bones, though
they have no diaphysis. They contain marrow but have no marrow cavity. (p. 131, Fig.
I. Bone design reflects the stresses placed on it. (pp. 131–132, Fig. 6.6)
1. Strong, compact bone tissue occurs in the external portion of bone.
2. Lack of bone tissue at a bone’s center does not impair its strength.
3. Spongy bone is exquisitely organized along stress lines.
4. Superficial surfaces of bones have distinct bone markings.
J. Bone markings provide significant information about the function of bone and muscle.
(pp. 131–132, Table 6.1)
1. Many bone markings are sites for muscle attachment. (Chapter 11)
2. Other bone markings form joints.
3. Openings within bones (e.g., foramina) are the passageways for blood vessels and
K. Compact bone and spongy bone differ microscopically. (pp. 132–135,
1. The osteon is the important structural unit of compact bone. Osteons are structures
unique to compact bone and include lamellae, the central canal, lacunae containing
osteocytes, and canaliculi.
2. Spongy bone is formed from osteocytes and lamellae organized in trabeculae.
However, spongy bone lacks the structural complexity of compact bone.
L. The process of bone tissue formation is named osteogenesis or ossification.
(pp. 136–139, Figs. 6.10, 6.11)
1. Intramembranous ossification forms membrane bone from fibrous connective tissue
membranes and results in the cranial bones and clavicles.
2. Endochondral ossification bone tissue replaces hyaline cartilage; all bones, except the
skull bones and clavicles, form this way.
K. Anatomical examination of epiphyseal growth areas reveals growing cartilage organized
in several zones; this organization permits the rapid growth of bone. (p. 138, Fig. 6.12)
L. Endochondral bones lengthen during youth and widen through appositional growth.
M. Bone remodeling is accomplished by deposition and resorption of new bone tissue in
response to hormonal and mechanical stimuli and occurs throughout life. (pp. 139–141,
Figs. 6.13, 6.14)
N. Bone fractures are repaired by open or closed reduction. (pp. 141–142, Fig. 6.15,
62 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
III. Disorders of Bones (pp.143–145, Fig. 6.16)
A. Examples of diseases of bone are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, Paget’s disease,
IV. The Skeleton Throughout Life (p. 145, Fig. 6.17)
A. Beginning with bone formation in the fetus, ossification occurs in a predictable manner
and in consistent stages until death of the skeleton.
1. Identify the major locations of cartilage in the human body. Refer to Figure 6.1. Ask
students why cartilage is included in a study of the bony skeleton.
2. For the three major types of cartilage, compare the structure (fibers and matrix), functions,
and locations. Instruct students to devise a comparison chart for the major types of
3. Define perichondrium. Point out that perichondrium does not cover the articular
4. Explain the two growth patterns of cartilage: interstitial and appositional.
5. Point out the significance of water to both the resiliency and growth of cartilage. Refer to
A Closer Look: The Marvelous Properties of Cartilage on p. 126.
6. Analyze bone as an organ.
7. Ask students to describe five major functions of the human skeleton, and have them
include their own illustrations.
8. Distinguish the specific organic and inorganic chemical components that comprise bone
tissue, and describe their functions.
9. Have students create a comparison chart for bone classification based on shape, and list
names of bones for each category. Suggest Chapters 7 and 8 as references. Students often
distinguish long bones from short bones based on size; emphasize that the difference is
shape, not size.
10. Distinguish the specific characteristics and structures of compact bone from spongy
11. Describe the gross anatomy of a typical long bone, such as the humerus. Refer to
Figure 6.4. Use an actual dried bone from lab to indicate the gross features. An opaque
projector (ELMO) is an excellent way to demonstrate bones to large lecture classes.
12. Describe the gross anatomy of a typical flat bone, such as a skull bone. Refer to
Figure 6.5. Use a skull bone from lab to indicate gross features; for large classes, use
of a projector is an excellent option.
13. If you are using a split, dried femur, use a projector to point out probable tension lines
and evident compression lines. Explain how bones withstand tension and compression.
Pass out diagrams, and instruct students to label the lines accordingly.
14. Using human bones (or bone models), describe the specific markings and openings.
Stress to students that understanding bone markings (discussed more in Chapters 7 and 8)
is critical to understanding muscle attachments later in the course. Refer to Table 6.1.
15. Explain functional differences among bone markings, surfaces that form joints, and
depressions and openings.
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16. Define osteon and describe the microscopic structure of compact and spongy bone. Refer
to Figures 6.7 and 6.8.
17. Illustrate the process of osteogenesis (ossification).
18. Distinguish two types of bone formation: intramembranous ossification and endochondral
19. Summarize the stages of endochondral ossification of a long bone.
20. Describe the anatomy of epiphyseal growth areas.
21. Explain postnatal growth of a long bone, including how the bone widens. The most
important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is growth hormone from the anterior
pituitary. Point out that long bone growth ends sooner in females (18 years) than in males
(21 years). Stress differences between epiphyseal plate and epiphyseal line. Emphasize
that bones can be remodeled or grow appositionally, even after longitudinal growth has
22. Describe the processes of bone remodeling. Describe the role of osteoblasts in bone
deposition and bone resorption.
23. Emphasize that bones must be mechanically stressed to remain healthy. Physical activity
pulls on bones, resulting in increased structure. Inactivity results in bone atrophy.
24. Define fracture, and explain repair of bone fractures; distinguish between a simple
(closed) fracture and a compound (open) fracture.
25. Using X-ray images, show several common types of fractures. Ask students which types
of fractures are more common among people of different ages.
26. Discuss disorders of bones, and comment on the following diseases: osteoporosis,
osteomalacia, rickets, Paget’s disease, and osteosarcoma.
27. Present a general bone/cartilage timetable that reflects the skeletal events throughout life.
Classroom Discussion Topics and Activities
1. Display examples of human bones using models or actual bones to illustrate various
2. Obtain a beef bone from a market and saw it longitudinally to demonstrate the internal
structure of long bones. Fresh bone is excellent for demonstrating compact versus spongy
bone and red marrow versus yellow marrow, as well as the epiphyseal line.
3. Demonstrate the periosteum by peeling this membrane from the fresh beef bone or the
femur of an uncooked chicken leg.
4. Obtain a fresh piece of round steak and point out the marrow in the cut femur.
5. Use a three-dimensional model of compact bone to identify the osteons, lacunae containing
osteocytes, lamellae, and canaliculi.
6. As an analogy, hold a bundle of uncooked pieces of spaghetti to show the arrangement of
osteons within compact bone.
7. Illustrate the organic and inorganic composition of bone tissue by placing one chicken
bone in nitric acid and another in the oven. The acid will leach out the calcium salts
(making the bone bendable), and the oven will break down the organic matter (making
the bone very brittle). A decalcified fibula can be tied in a knot and will resume its original
shape when untied.
64 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
8. Obtain X-ray images of long bones of young children, teenagers, and adults to illustrate
the conversion of the epiphyseal plate to an epiphyseal line.
9. Obtain X-ray images of carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges of young children and
adults. Compare X-rays of clavicles of young children to those of adults. Use these to
illustrate the different ages of ossification of various bones.
10. Obtain a cleared and stained pig embryo to show the development of bone in the skeleton
(available from most biological supply companies).
11. Set up microscopes or use photomicrograph slides from PAL 3.0 to demonstrate and contrast
endochondral versus intramembranous ossification.
12. Bend a stick of clay to illustrate bending forces typically placed on long bones in the
living skeleton. On one side the clay will tear apart in tension, whereas on the other side
it will bunch together in compression; these forces cancel each other out in the center.
13. Bend a green twig to illustrate a greenstick fracture, which is common in children. Then
break a dry twig to more closely approximate a fracture in an adult.
14. Obtain X-rays of limbs whose bones show various types of fractures. If possible, obtain
X-ray images that illustrate healing stages following the fracture.
15. Discuss why infections are more common with compound fractures than simple
16. Discuss the effects on the skeleton of extended weightlessness in space. How can these
effects be minimized or at least reduced?
17. Ask the question: Why are incomplete or greenstick fractures more common in children,
whereas complete breaks are more common in adults?
18. Explore the statement: Multiple pregnancies will result in the mother losing all the
enamel from her teeth and calcium from her bones. Is this all true, all false, or only partly
19. Calcium plays an important role in bone formation. Ask the class what other roles calcium
plays in the body.
20. Discuss why fossil remains of vertebrate animals consist almost exclusively of bones and
21. Ask the class, If bone tissue is so hard, how can orthodontists move teeth from one location
in the jaw to another?
22. Have students work in groups of 3 or 4 to build a model of an osteon. Students should
label each structure of the osteon. Students may turn in the actual model or turn in a
PowerPoint presentation of their labeled model.
1. Why do many elderly people develop “bowed backs” and appear shorter than they were
in younger years?
Answer: Because of osteoporosis, bone tissue tends to reabsorb faster than it is reformed,
and the density of the tissue decreases. The bony trabeculae become thin within
the bodies of the vertebrae; thus weakened, they experience numerous microfractures
when subjected to the normal weight of the body. This compresses the vertebral bodies,
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues 65
causing the vertebral column to bend forward into a bow shape. The bowed spine
accounts for the loss of body height.
2. A 75-year-old woman and her 9-year-old granddaughter were victims of a train crash. In
both cases, trauma to the chest was sustained. X-ray films of the grandmother revealed
several broken ribs, but her granddaughter’s ribs did not break. Explain these different
Answer: The youngster has relatively more organic material in her bones, which allows
them to bend, whereas the grandmother’s bones are fully calcified, with less organic
material. Furthermore, the grandmother’s bones may have been weakened by
3. Cyndi fractured the middle of the diaphysis of her right tibia in a skiing accident. The
surrounding soft tissue (in the middle of her leg) was also damaged by the force of the
accident. After prolonged immobilization of the limb in a cast, it was found that the fracture
was not healing. Can you explain why?
Answer: The nutrient artery, which enters near the middle of the diaphysis of a long
bone, was destroyed in the accident. Without its blood supply, the shaft of the tibia could
Transparencies Index/Instructor Resource DVD
Figure 6.1 Cartilages in the body.
Figure 6.2 Types of cartilage tissue.
Figure 6.3 Classification of bones.
Figure 6.4 The structure of a long bone (humerus).
Figure 6.5 Structure of a flat bone.
Figure 6.6 Bone anatomy and bending stress.
Figure 6.7 Microscopic structure of compact bone.
Figure 6.8 A single osteon.
Figure 6.9 Spongy bone.
Figure 6.10 Intramembranous ossification: Development of a flat bone of the skull
in the fetus.
Figure 6.11 Endochondral ossification of a long bone.
Figure 6.12 Organization of the cartilage within the epiphyseal plate of a growing long
Figure 6.13 Remodeling of spongy bone.
Figure 6.14 An osteoclast.
Figure 6.15 Stages in the healing of a bone fracture.
Figure 6.16 Osteoporosis.
Figure 6.17 Rickets.
Figure 6.18 Primary ossification centers in the skeleton of a 12-week-old fetus.
Table 6.1 Bone Markings.
66 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 6.2 Common Types of Fractures.
A Closer Look The Marvelous Properties of Cartilage
Teaching with Art
Figure 6.4 The structure of a long bone (humerus).
Textbook p. 130; transparencies; and Instructor Resource DVD.
Checklist of Key Points in the Figure
• Articular cartilage provides almost frictionless joint surfaces.
• The periosteum is a connective tissue covering of bone. Its superficial layer of dense
irregular connective tissue resists tension during bending.
• The deep periosteal layer contains cells that provide lifetime bone remodeling.
• The endosteum covers internal bone surfaces and also contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
• Relate bone to other connective tissues using the following concepts: articulations and
mobility, prenatal and postnatal growth, support and protection, and nutrition.
Common Conceptual Difficulties Interpreting the Art
• The epiphyseal line is a remnant of the plate of hyaline cartilage that grows to lengthen
• Differentiate the composition of bone marrow in the long bone of an infant from that of an
• The periosteum provides sites for tendon and ligament attachment.
• Explain that there are separate blood supplies to either side of the epiphyseal line in an
adult long bone. (Show Fig. 6.11, number 5.)
1. Instruct students to compare Figure 6.4—The structure of a long bone—with Figure 6.11,
Stages in endochondral ossification of a long bone. Instruct students to construct a flowchart
summarizing the events that occur from the formation of an epiphyseal plate cartilage
to the appearance of the epiphyseal line.
2. Using the Instructor Resource DVD, provide copies of Figure 6.4 and Figure 6.11, number
5, with only leader lines. Ask students to associate specific types of connective tissue
with the anatomical names of bone structures. For example, in addition to labeling the
periosteum, a student would indicate that it is also dense irregular connective tissue.
1. Bone tissue does not form the epiphyseal plate. Ask students what tissue does grow, and
account for lengthening of long bones.
Answer: Hyaline cartilage.
2. As endochondral ossification occurs, a long bone widens as it grows in length. Ask students
how this is accomplished.
Answer: On the external surface of the diaphysis, osteoblasts in the periosteum add bone
tissue. Internally, osteoclasts in the endosteum remove bone tissue from the inner surface
of the diaphysis.
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues 67
Supplemental Course Materials
Library Research Topics
1. How are electrical fields being used to stimulate bone growth and bone repair?
2. Much research is currently being performed to determine the mechanisms by which
compression and tension forces on bones stimulate the bone to respond by growing
thicker. What are the mechanisms that have been hypothesized?
3. Explore the procedures used in bone tissue transplants in which pieces of bone are
removed from one part of the body and implanted into another.
4. What effect does the use of illegal steroids by athletes have on their bone tissue and bone
5. Research the latest techniques, such as the Ilizarov procedure, used to lengthen bones that
have been damaged in accidents or illnesses.
See Appendix A of the Instructor Resource Guide for “Key to Audiovisual Distributors.”
1. Specialized Connective Tissue: Cartilage and Bone Set (CBS)
1. The Anatomy of Movement (FHS; 50 min., 2005). This video is hosted by Gunther von
Hagens, who is world renowned for his expertise in dissection and plastination. In the
video, he discusses the composition of bones, the interaction of the skeletal and muscular
systems, and the protective role of the vertebral column and skull.
2. MDS (FHS; 28 min, 2006). Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a disorder of bone marrow
that may lead to leukemia. Successful treatments with bone marrow transplants are
now the standard treatment for this little-known and formerly devastating disease.
3. The Body in Motion (FHS; 24 min, 2010). This program uses animations to give examples
of interactions of skeletal and muscular systems and the interactions of the cardiorespiratory
4. The Skeletal and Muscular Systems (FHS; 22 min, 2009). This program shows the interdependence
of both systems upon each other. The presentation of the skeletal system is
divided into axial and appendicular.
1. 3D Human Skeletal Anatomy (Download from http://www.nextd.com/3d-humanskeleton-
anatomy/) (Windows). A good tool for helping students identify components of
the skeletal system and their articulations.
2. Practice Anatomy Lab 3.0 (PAL) (BC; DVD, website). An interactive study and labassessment
tool. For Chapter 6 content, refer to the Histology module (connective tissue
slides 13–23) and the Skeletal System sections in the Human Cadaver and Anatomical
Models modules. These sections of PAL will guide students through learning bone
landmarks and the histology of bone tissue.
68 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
3. WARD’S Radiographic Anatomy (WNSE; Win). Excellent collection of health-related
images (CTs, MRIs, etc.).
Suggested Bone Tissue Website
Kansas University Medical Center: The JayDoc HistoWeb.
http://www.kumc.edu/instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/ From the home page,
click on the “Bone” button.
Junqueira, L. C., et al. Basic Histology. 12th ed. Stamford, Conn.: Appleton & Lange, 2009.
Kotz, Rainer I., et al. “A Self-Extending Paediatric Leg Implant.” Nature 406 (6792)
(July 2000): 143.
Short, Ben. “miR-34 Keep Osteoblasts Bone Idle.” Journal of Cell Biology. (197:461)
(May 7, 2012)
Wei, J., Yu Shi, Lihua Zheng, et al. “miR-34 Inhibit Osteoblast Proliferation and Differentiation
in the Mouse by Targeting SATB2.” (197:509-521) May 7, 2012. Note: There is a
$30.00 charge for accessing this article from the website.
Answers to Textbook Questions
Answers for multiple-choice questions 1–18 are located in Appendix B of the textbook.
Short Answer and Essay Questions
19. (a) Cartilage is resilient (springy) because large molecules in its ground substance have a
strong attraction for water molecules. When the cartilage is compressed, the water molecules
are pushed out of the ground substance; when the compression lets up, the water
rushes back in, causing the cartilage to spring back to its original shape. (b) Cartilage
grows quickly because a small amount of its matrix attracts much water, which quickly
increases the size of the tissue. Also, cartilage is avascular, so there is no need for the
time-consuming process of growing new capillary beds within the growing cartilage
tissue itself. (p. 126)
20. Most long bones in the living skeleton are subjected to bending forces, which subject one
side of the shaft to extreme tension and the other to extreme compression. These opposite
forces cancel each other out in the interior of the diaphysis, so the strongest forces are
experienced externally. Placing weak, spongy bone on the exterior would cause this bone
to break and crumble very easily when subjected to normal bending stresses. Thus, an
imaginary bone with spongy bone on the outside would be of poor mechanical design.
21. The epiphyseal plates close after adolescence, at about age 18 in females and age 21 in
males. The plates close because, at this time, the sex hormones signal a slowdown in the
division rate of cartilage cells in the plates, and the cartilage is replaced by bone tissue.
22. (a) First decade is the fastest; fourth decade is when skeletal mass starts to decline.
(pp. 136 and 143) (b) Elderly people usually experience a loss of bone mass,
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues 69
osteoporosis, and lack of blood supply to bone. This weakens the bones, so they are more
easily fractured. (p. 143)
23. Interstitial growth is a growth from within, in which the chondrocytes inside a piece of
cartilage divide and secrete matrix. Appositional growth, by contrast, is a growth from
outside, in which cells in the perichondrium around the piece of cartilage produce the
new tissue. (p. 127)
24. Membrane bones are the clavicle and the bones of the skull (except some at the cranial
base, such as the base of the occiput). All other bones of the skeleton are endochondral.
25. An osteoclast is a large cell that resorbs or breaks down the bone matrix by secreting
hydrochloric acid. An osteocyte is a mature bone cell, shaped like a spider with a body
and long processes, which occupies a lacuna in the bone matrix. (p. 136) An osteoblast is
a bone-forming cell, and an osteon is an important structural tube-shaped unit in mature
compact bone. It consists of concentric layers of lamellae surrounding a central canal,
also called the Haversian system. (pp. 132–134)
26. Bone and cartilage are both examples of connective tissue; both originate from embryonic
mesenchyme, and both provide shape and support for respective body parts. Differences
between bone and cartilage include the degree of vascularity, and the hard,
calcified matrix of bone compared to the flexible nature of cartilage. Growth patterns
vary between bone and cartilage as well. (pp. 125 and 127)
Critical Reasoning and Clinical Applications Questions
1. To remain strong, the bones of the living skeleton must be continually stressed by the
weight of the body and by the force of muscles pulling on them. The lower limbs of a
paraplegic in a wheelchair experience neither of these forces, so bone tissue is lost. Such
bones thin and weaken. (pp. 131–132 and 141)
2. The broken bone will heal faster than the torn cartilage. Cartilage cells do not divide after
youth, so healing of damaged cartilages is poor in adults. Bone, by contrast, will heal
vigorously throughout life. (pp. 127 and 141)
3. By overdoing his exercise, Carlos had twisted and torn the cartilage in the distal epiphyseal
plate of the humerus in his arm. (Recall that cartilage is weak in resisting such
twisting stresses: p. 125.) Damage to the epiphyseal plates is common in child athletes
(pp. 141 and 145), but it could not have happened to adult Selena, whose epiphyseal
plates have already closed.
4. The epiphyseal plates do grow fast, but the cartilage is replaced by spongy bone tissue at
the diaphyseal side as quickly as it grows. Therefore, the plate remains the same width.
5. Egil is thought to have had Paget’s disease, an excessive remodeling of bone dominated
by bone deposition. (p. 141) For more information on Egil, see pp. 82–87 in the January
1995 issue of Scientific American magazine.
6. Bernice had symptoms of osteoporosis. (pp. 143–144)
7. Pregnancy and lactation (making milk) lead to a transfer of large amounts of calcium
from a mother’s skeleton to the growing skeleton of the fetus and newborn. Therefore, it
is extremely important for women to eat calcium-rich foods during pregnancy, while
lactating, and between pregnancies as well. (p. 144)
70 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
8. Weight-bearing exercise (1) increases bone mass by stimulating osteoblasts in the
periosteum to lay down new bone tissue; (2) increases the blood flow to bones; and
(3) decreases bone resorption by hydrochloric acid-secreting osteoclasts. Weight-bearing
exercise, along with a diet high in calcium and protein, is critical for maintaining bone
mass. (p. 141)
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues 71
Supplemental Student Materials
to Human Anatomy, Seventh Edition
Chapter 6: Bones and Skeletal Tissues
To the Student
During your study of Chapter 6, you will discover the amazing structure and functions of
bone tissue and cartilage. Together they form your skeleton. You will gain insight as to how
an individual bone functions as an organ in its own right and explore the important relationship
of cartilage to bone during development. Understanding the basics in this chapter prepares
you for succeeding chapters, where you will learn the bones forming the axial and
appendicular skeletons, how joints form, attachments of muscles to bones, and movements.
Please make use of Practice Anatomy Lab 3.0 (PAL). For Chapter 6 content, refer to the Histology
module (connective tissue slides 13–23) and the Skeletal System sections in the Human
Cadaver and Anatomical Models modules. These sections of PAL will guide you
through learning bone landmarks and the histology of bone tissue.
Step 1: Understanding cartilage.
__ Define cartilage.
__ Identify major locations of cartilage in the adult human body.
__ Explain the functional properties of cartilage as a tissue.
__ Prepare a comparison chart of each type of cartilage, including notes on structure, functions,
__ Describe interstitial and appositional growth of cartilage.
__ Define perichondrium and describe its location and functions.
Step 2: Understanding bone tissue.
__ Describe why a bone is an organ.
__ Summarize each of the six major functions of the bony skeleton.
__ Describe the gross anatomy of a typical long bone and the gross anatomy of a typical flat
__ Describe the functions of osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts.
__ Explain how bones withstand tension and compression.
__ Analyze each of the bone markings based on their locations and functions.
__ Draw and label an osteon. Describe histological features.
__ Describe differences between compact bone tissue and spongy bone tissue.
__ Describe the chemical composition of bone, and distinguish its organic from its inorganic
__ Distinguish intramembranous and endochondral ossification as types of bone formation.
__ Explain how bone is remodeled in the skeleton.
72 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
__ List and describe the common types of fractures described in the text.
__ Explain basic steps in the repair of a fracture.
Step 3: Explore bone disorders and changes of bone tissue throughout life.
__ List symptoms of osteoporosis.
__ Name two ways aged bone differs from young bone.
7Th_Ed Test Bank Solution Manual Human Anatomy by Marieb_Wilhelm_Mallatt