Test Bank 14Th_Ed Life-span Development by John W. Santrock
- The Reggio Emilia approach is a(n):
A. nutrition program for young children.
B. educational program for young children.
C. program for training kindergarten and elementary school teachers. D. parenting education program.
- Her pediatrician has just told Sandra that her 4-year-old son, Manuel, has gained 6 pounds in the last year. Sandra should:
A. be alarmed, because this is too much weight gain.
B. be concerned, because this is too little weight gain.
C. be positive and change Manuel’s diet.
D. be content that this is normal for Manuel’s age.
- During early childhood, on average, girls are _____ than boys. A. much lighter
B. more fair
C. slightly smaller
D. considerably taller
- By the end of early childhood, girls have more _____ tissue than boys. A. fatty
B. muscle C. epithelial D. nervous
- When looking at the heights and weights of preschool children around the world, we know that there are:
A. congenital differences.
B. ethnic differences among them. C. no visible differences.
D. cases of hyperthyroidism.
- What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?
A. Nationality and culture
B. Education and exercise
C. Prenatal care and emotional challenges D. Ethnic origin and nutrition
- Who among the following 5-year olds is MOST likely to be the tallest?
A. Timothy, White boy, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and later-born
B. Tina, White girl, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and firstborn
C. Tyrone, African American boy, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and firstborn D. Tucker, African American boy, rural, lower-socioeconomic-status, and later-born
- Which of the following statements about brain development and early childhood is true? A. The development that occurs inside the brain ends at the onset of adolescence.
B. By the time a child is 3 years of age, the brain is 25 percent of its adult size.
C. By age 6, the brain has reached about 95 percent of its adult size.
D. The brain of a 5-year-old is 60 percent the size of an adult brain.
- _____ is a process in which nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells. A. Centration
B. Myelination C. Tropism
- Researchers have found that children’s brains _____ between the ages of 3 and 15. A. display a marked deceleration of growth
B. exhibit no change in local patterns
C. show dramatic growth in overall size
D. undergo dramatic anatomical changes
- Scientists have found that there are _____ the brains of children between the ages of 3 and 15. A. dramatic changes in local patterns within
B. phenomenal increases in the overall size of
C. insignificant anatomical changes in
D. marked deceleration of growth in
- Researchers have found that in children from 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the _____ lobe areas of the brain.
C. frontal D. occipital
- Toby is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping around. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he fidgets and wiggles. It is especially frustrating to his parents when Toby does not sit still through dinner. Which of the following should Toby’s parents do?
A. Have him tested for attention deficit disorder
B. Start him on a behavior modification program
C. Provide structured, cognitively challenging activities for Toby to develop his attention span D. Be assured that his behavior is normal for his age
- When 4- and 5-year olds scramble over jungle gyms and race their friends, they are demonstrating their:
A. cognitive skills.
B. fine harboring skills. C. gross motor skills. D. reflective skills.
- Fred and Wayne are 4-year-olds and friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, we know that these activities will:
A. help the boys develop gross motor skills.
B. stop when their brains become better myelinated. C. be temporary as they will not be friends for long. D. help the boys overcome narcolepsy.
- Gross motor skills are to fine motor skills as _____ is to _____. A. jumping; writing
B. running; swimming
C. laughing; shouting
D. hopping; walking
- Debra is very active. She loves to tumble and show off. She is always trying out what her parents consider to be hair-raising stunts. She also loves races and believes she can run faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of:
- Three-year old Ashley is putting a jigsaw puzzle together, and, as is typical of her age, she: A. places the pieces awkwardly.
B. is focused and excels at the task.
C. cannot identify the correct sections.
D. is precise in joining the bits.
- Four-year old Nathan is good at stacking his playing blocks to make tall structures. However, he still knocks them over occasionally. Which of the following is the MOST likely reason for this?
A. His gross motor skills are deficient.
B. He tries to place each block perfectly on top of the other, upsetting those already stacked.
C. His coordination skills are not developing normally for his age. D. He is showing signs of dyslexia.
- Experts recommend that young children get _____ hours of sleep each night. A. 8 to 9
B. 7 to 8 C. 9to10 D. 11 to 13
- Children can experience a number of sleep problems including narcolepsy which is characterized by: A. extreme daytime sleepiness.
B. difficulty going to sleep.
C. difficulty staying asleep.
- Researchers have found that children who have sleep problems: A. exhibit no related outcomes in adolescence.
B. are usually underweight.
C. are unlikely to show any variations in brain development.
D. are more likely to use alcohol in adolescence.
- Short sleep duration in children is linked with being: A. dyslexic.
C. overweight. D. paraplegic.
- Which of the following should be minimized in order to improve the eating behavior of children? A. Competing activities
B. A predictable schedule
C. Eating healthy food yourself
D. Making mealtimes pleasant occasions
- Which of the following determines the categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk for being overweight?
B. Average calories consumed daily C. Waist-to-hips ratio
D. Body mass index
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only children and adolescents at or above the _____ percentile are classified as obese.
C. 90th D. 88th
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a person with a BMI at the 90th percentile is:
C. at risk of being overweight. D. underweight.
- Gina, 6, has a BMI in the 95th percentile. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, she would be classified as:
C. at risk for being overweight.
D. not at risk for being overweight.
- Which of the following statements about childhood obesity is true?
A. Children who are overweight at age 3 are also at risk of being overweight at age 12. B. There is no indication that overweight young children will become overweight adults. C. Obesity is not linked to type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes in children.
D. In 2005, the United States had the highest rate of child obesity in the world.
- Guidelines recommend that preschool children engage in _____ of physical activity per day. A. half an hour
B. two hours C. one hour D. four hours
- Which of the following is a factor in increasing the physical activity of preschool children? A. Family members watching sports on TV together
B. Parents’ perception that it is safe for their children to play outside
C. Participating in sedentary outdoor play
D. Incorporation of an “observe and learn” activity curriculum
- Shawn’s mother took him to the doctor as he complains of fatigue frequently. His doctor diagnosed his condition as _____ that results from a failure to eat adequate amounts of quality meats and dark green vegetables.
A. growth hormone deficiency
B. binge eating disorder C. iron deficiency anemia D. hemophilia
- Young children from _____ families are the most likely to develop iron deficiency anemia. A. urban
B. elementary C. nuclear
- The leading cause of death in young children in the United States is: A. heart disease.
C. motor vehicle accidents. D. domestic violence.
- Which of the following statements regarding parental smoking is true?
A. Children are at risk for health problems when they live in homes in which a parent smokes.
B. Most children and adolescents in the United States are exposed to tobacco smoke in the home. C.Children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home are no more likely to develop asthma than children in
D. Parental smoking is the leading cause for death in young children in the United States.
- Which of the following can be modified to create conditions that enhance the child’s safety and reduce the likelihood of injury?
A. Decrease home/school partnerships
B. Reduce playground hazards
C. Reduce pool fencing
D. Reduce frequent parent protective behaviors
- The poor are the majority in nearly _____ of the nations of the world. A. one-fifth
C. two-thirds D. 10 percent
- Deaths in young children due to HIV/AIDS especially occur in countries:
A. in the northern hemisphere.
B. with high rates of poverty and low levels of education.
C. where other common children’s health problems like malnutrition do not exist. D. where the society is affluent.
- Many of the deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by a reduction in: A. nutrition.
B. sanitation. C. poverty. D. education.
- The second Piagetian stage of development is the preoperational stage, which lasts from approximately _____ years of age.
A. 1 to 3
B. 2 to 7
C. 4to10 D. 5to12
- Patricia, 6, loves to decorate books by drawing pictures and putting in words to describe them. Her
ideas are more balanced now. She has started to analyze and understand things. However, she is egocentric and holds what her parents describe as “magical beliefs”. Patricia is in Piaget’s _____ stage of development.
B. concrete operational C. formal operational D. preoperational
- Piaget’s preoperational stage is so named because he believed that children at this age: A. do not yet perform reversible mental actions.
B. cannot yet form stable concepts.
C. are unable to reason.
D. cannot operate electronic devices like TVs.
- Three-year-old Betty’s favorite pastime is scribbling designs. She says the drawings represent her parents, cat, bicycle, and home. This indicates that Betty is in the _____ substage of Piaget’s preoperational
A. symbolic function
B. intuitive thought C. operational
- Three-and-a-half-year-old Ruth draws a picture with lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. “It’s a boat on the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!” she explains to her teacher. Which of the following does this explain?
C. Intuitive thought D. Symbolic function
- The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective is known as _____.
C. egocentrism D. symbolism
- While talking with his grandmother on the phone, five-year old Danny suddenly exclaims, “Oh, look at that pretty bird!” When his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Danny says, “Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!” He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of:
C. intuitive thought. D. symbolic function.
- A young child might be heard saying, “That tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down”. The child’s belief that the tree is capable of action is referred to as _____.
C. animism D. kineticism
- “My computer doesn’t like me—it keeps eating my pictures”, says 3-year old Kimberly. This is an example of:
B. intuitive thinking. C. conservation.
- The second substage of preoperational thought, occurring between approximately 4 and 7 years of age, is characterized by the use of:
A. reversible mental actions.
B. egocentric views.
C. primitive reasoning. D. symbolic thought.
- Ethan, age 4, reasons that every time he sees a lightning bolt in the sky, angels are turning on their flashlights. Ethan’s primitive reasoning about lightning is characteristic of:
A. symbolic function.
B. intuitive thought.
C. egocentrism. D. centration.
- Piaget called the second substage in preoperational thought “intuitive” because of the absence of the use of _____ in children in that stage.
A. symbolic function
B. primitive reasoning
D. rational thinking
- Juan and his little sister, Anne, are each given a large cookie. Their mother breaks Anne’s cookie into four pieces to help her eat it more easily. Juan immediately begins to cry and says that it is not fair for his sister to get so many cookies when he only has one. Juan is showing a lack of:
D. symbolic function.
- Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation? A. Conservation requires centration.
B. Centration is due to lack of conservation.
C. Centration is reflected in lack of conservation.
D. Conservation is independent of centration.
- Centration inhibits the ability to categorize items because it prevents one from: A. focusing only on one feature.
B. considering combinations of features.
C. taking a perspective that is different from one’s own.
D. distinguishing between animate and inanimate objects.
- In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement: A. do not change an object’s basic properties.
B. affect an object’s inherent features.
C. determine the total volume needed for a given task.
D. must be considered before the characteristics of an object can be determined.
- In Piaget’s theory, failing the conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates: A. that the child is at the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
B. that the child is unable to think fluidly.
D. rational thought.
- According to Rochel Gelman, _____ is especially important in explaining conservation. A. the age of the child
- Zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vygotsky’s term for:
A. a young adult’s cognitive development achieved through interaction with children.
B. the variety of work that a child can do with ease at a particular stage of cognitive development.
C. how the environment and a child’s genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical
D. the range of tasks difficult for a child to master alone but that can be learned with help from adults.
- A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if: A. the toddler has mastered all the skills necessary.
B. parents or teachers do not interfere.
C. the task is more difficult than the child can do alone.
D. the toddler uses no help from a parent or teacher.
- Kevin is just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by himself if he uses both hands to hold on
to a piece of furniture for support, but he can walk out into the middle of the room only if one of his parents holds his hands. Which of the following represents the lower limit of Kevin’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for walking?
A. Kevin learning to run after he has mastered walking by himself
B. Kevin going back to crawling when he becomes frustrated trying to walk by himself C. Kevin walking alone by holding onto a piece of furniture with his hands
D. Kevin learning to walk by having his parents hold one of his hands
- Sharon, 3, can solve 4-piece jigsaw puzzles on her own, but needs her parents’ help to solve 6-piece jigsaw puzzles. Which of the following represents the upper limit of Sharon’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for solving such puzzles?
A. Sharon moving on to 10-piece puzzles
B. Sharon solving a 6-piece puzzle on her own
C. Sharon helping her 2-year old brother with 4-piece puzzles D. Sharon mastering 4-piece puzzles
- Which of the following did Vygotsky call the “buds” or “flowers” of development? A. Tasks a child can accomplish independently
B. Intuitive thinking and rational thinking
C. A child’s cognitive skills in the process of maturing
D. A child’s gross motor skills that are fully developed
- When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instructions, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children demonstrate they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw these supports. This shows the adults’ involvement in the children’s:
A. zone of proximal development.
B. development of conservational abilities. C. enhancement of intuitive reasoning.
D. process of centration.
- Which of the following refers to teachers’ adjustment of their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student?
C. Scaffolding D. Assimilation
- Over the past week, Walter has been trying to learn to tie his shoelaces. Initially, his mother was holding his hands and working his fingers through the process, but now that Walter’s gotten better at it, she only guides him verbally. Which of the following is this an example of?
A. How heredity shapes cognitive development
B. Intuitive reasoning C. Scaffolding
- The use of language by children for self-regulation is called: A. mindstream.
B. self-articulation. C. lisping.
D. private speech.
- Which of the following describes what Lev Vygotsky believed about the development of thought and language?
A. Thought and language are merged early in development and later separate.
B. Thought depends on language, so they are merged throughout development.
C. Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development.
D. Thought and language are two separate functions that remain independent throughout development.
- In the development of language and thought:
A. internal speech precedes private speech.
B. internal and external speech develop simultaneously. C. external speech precedes internal speech.
D. external speech develops after internal speech.
- Michelle, 4. talks to herself frequently, especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Lev Vygotsky would say that Michelle is:
A. engaging in egocentric and immature thinking.
B. likely to be socially competent.
C. functioning at the upper limit of her zone of proximal development (ZPD). D. engaging in scaffolding.
- Amy, age 3, walks by her grandmother’s collection of glass animals and says, “Those are a ‘no-no’; don’t touch”. It would appear that Amy is using _____ to regulate her own behavior.
B. intuitive reasoning
C. private speech
D. symbolic function
- Which of the following is true of Lev Vygotsky’s educational applications? A. IQ should be assessed to test a child’s learning capabilities.
B. A child should learn on his/her own to realize his capabilities.
C. A child’s use of private speech reflects immaturity and egocentrism.
D. Teaching should begin toward the upper limit of a child’s zone of proximal development.
- Which of the following scenarios best represents Lev Vygotsky’s view of mental and behavioral development?
A. A teacher assigns challenging tasks that students must complete on their own.
- An instructor helps students with laboratory work, showing them how to do things the students cannot
- A teacher waits patiently for students to come up with good answers and assesses their learning
- An instructor systematically offers standardized tests to students to evaluate their mental abilities on
- An instructor helps students with laboratory work, showing them how to do things the students cannot
- Which of the following educational strategies would Vygotsky say should be incorporated into the classroom?
A. Making each child responsible for his/her work, without relying on peers or teachers for support B. Formal, standardized tests to assess children’s learning
C. Discouraging distractions like self-talk or private talk
D. Offering just enough assistance to the child to accomplish the task
- Vygotsky’s view of the importance of _____ on children’s development fits with the current belief that it is important to evaluate the contextual factors in learning.
B. sociocultural influences
C. economic status of teachers D. scaffolding
- In moving from Piaget to Vygotsky, the conceptual shift is one from: A. the individual to collaboration.
B. collaboration to sociocultural activity.
C. construction to discovery.
D. socializing to operational thought.
- Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge through: A. self-discovery.
B. social interaction.
C. reorganization of existing knowledge.
D. transforming previous knowledge.
- “Tools of the Mind” is a program that is grounded in _____ theory of cognitive development. A. Vygotsky’s
B. Erikson’s C. Sternberg’s D. Piaget’s
- In a “Tools of the Mind” classroom, _____ has a central role. A. nutrition
B. didactic lecture
C. dramatic play
D. abstract presentation
- A teacher in a “Tools of the Mind” classroom guides a child in planning his own message by drawing a line to stand for each word the child says. The child then repeats the message, pointing to each line as he/ she says the word. Then, the child writes on the lines, trying to represent each word with some letters or symbols. This process is called:
A. model drawing.
B. scaffolding writing. C. word visualizing. D. positive role-play.
- Which of the following is a criticism of Vygotsky’s theory?
A. Vygotsky was specific about age-related changes and generalized all individuals.
B. Vygotsky overemphasized the role of language in thinking.
C Vygotsky particularly described how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive . development,whichishighlysubjective.
D. Vygotsky laid no emphasis on guidance which plays an important role in learning.
- _____ attention involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
C. Executive D. Sustained
- _____ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.
C. Executive D. Sustained
- A police officer visits Ben and Heather’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Heather tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer presented. Heather obviously paid more attention to what was _____.
B. relevant C. habituated D. intended
- A police officer visits Timothy and Evelyn’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Timothy tells his parents all about the safety rules the officer discussed. Timothy obviously paid attention to what was _____.
C. habituated D. superfluous
- After the age of _____, children attend more efficiently to the dimensions of the task that are relevant.
A. 3 or 4 B. 4 or 5 C. 6 or 7 D. 5
- When experimenters ask children to judge whether two complex pictures are the same, preschool children tend to use a haphazard comparison strategy, not examining all of the details before making a judgment, exhibiting a lack of:
B. attention to the salient. C. centration.
- In Central European countries, such as Hungary, kindergarten children participate in exercises designed to improve their _____. An eye-contact exercise, in which the teacher sits in the center of a circle of children and each child is required to catch the teacher’s eye before being permitted to leave the group, is an example of this type of exercise.
A. hand-to-eye coordination B. attention
C. social skills
- In short-term memory, individuals retain information for up to _____ if there is no rehearsal of the information.
A. 30 seconds B. 15 minutes. C. 5 hours
D. 2 days
- Irene is taking a test where she hears a random list of numbers, which she is then asked to repeat in the right order. Irene is having her _____ memory tested.
C. procedural D. short-term
- Using rehearsal, we can keep information in short-term memory for a much longer period. In this context, rehearsal means:
A. preparing for a memory-span test.
B. doing mental exercises daily to keep the mind sharp.
C. repeating information after it has been presented. D. taking regular memory-span tests.
- Research with the memory-span task suggests that:
A. short-term memory increases during early childhood.
B. long-term memory reaches maturation by early childhood. C. memory span depends on one’s ethnic origin.
D. heredity is a major factor affecting memory.
- In a study comparing the memory spans of preschool and elementary school children, the latter group consistently scored better. This apparent increase in memory span with age could be explained partly by how:
A. the peer group plays a part in short-term memory.
B. older children rehearse the digits more than younger children do.
C. elementary schools practice scaffolding.
D. memory-span tests are not always an accurate measure of short-term memory.
- Six-year-old Shirley, a witness to a robbery, was asked to testify at the trial. The defense argued that her testimony would be invalid because:
A. at her age, she has no long-term memories.
B. her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.
C. she is more likely to embellish her memories.
D. children cannot recall details of events sequentially.
- The theory of _____ refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
A. self-awareness B. recognition
- By _____ years of age, a child recognizes that another person will see what is in front of his/her own eyes instead of what is in front of the child’s eyes.
C. 4 D. 5
- Alan, 18 months old, hates spinach but says “Yum!” when he sees his mother eating her favorite spinach casserole, indicating that:
A. he will also like spinach when he grows up.
B. he recognizes that someone else may have different desires from his own.
C. he has started to recognize false beliefs.
D. he has started to understand that people can have ambivalent feelings.
- The realization that people can have false beliefs develops in a majority of children by the time they are _____ years old.
C. 4 D. 5
- One of the criticisms of “false-belief tasks” as indicators of understanding the thoughts of children is that:
A. the false-belief task is a complicated one that involves a number of factors.
B. this kind of task has at least four possible outcomes.
C. the false belief tasks are too simple.
D. it is only by the preschool years that children have a deepening appreciation of the mind itself.
- It is only by age 7 that children begin to recognize all of the following EXCEPT: A. there can be more than one correct opinions on an issue.
B. people’s behaviors do not necessarily reflect their thoughts and feelings.
C. people have different interpretations of the same event.
D. people can have ambivalent feelings.
100.Several operations, such as inhibition and planning, that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior and may also be connected to theory of mind development are known as:
A. operational thought.
B. instrumental activities.
C. executive function. D. intuitive reasoning.
101.A group of children were put through a task where they were asked to say the word “night” when they see a picture of a sun, and the word “day” when they see a picture of a moon and stars. This is an example
of a(n) _____ function, which describes several functions—such as inhibition and planning—that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior.
A. executive B. social
102.Approximately _____ children is estimated to have some sort of autism spectrum disorder. A. 1in50
B. 1 in 150 C. 1 in 300 D. 1 in 500
103.It is now accepted that autism is linked to: A. genetic and brain abnormalities.
B. personality characteristics of the parents.
C. ineffective vaccination.
D. proximity to toxic waste disposal sites.
104.Cynthia is showing a number of behaviors different from children her age, including deficits in social interaction and communication as well as repetitive behaviors or interests. She is indifferent toward others and prefers to be alone. She is more interested in objects than people. It is MOST likely that she suffers from _____.
A. insomnia B. narcolepsy C. anemia
105.Which of the following statements regarding autism in children is true?
A. Higher-functioning children with autism show reasonable progress in understanding others’ desires. B.Children with autism have difficulty in understanding others’ beliefs and emotions solely due to theory
of mind deficits.
C. Children with autism are a homogeneous group.
D. Children with autism usually perform well on false-belief tasks.
106.Pointing to a tree, young Leo says, “Bird flied away”. Leo’s interesting but incorrect use of the “-ed” word ending shows that he is trying to learn the _____ rules of language.
C. pragmatic D. syntactic
107.Zelda, 3, is always asking questions like “Where Daddy is going?” and “What Mommy is doing?” This indicates that she is yet to learn the auxiliary-inversion rule and to apply rules of:
108.Jean Berko’s experiment involving “wugs” demonstrated that the young children who took part in the experiment knew:
A. the phonological rules.
B. the rules of syntax.
C. the pragmatic rules.
D. the morphological rules.
109.By the time they enter first grade, it is estimated that children know about _____ words. A. 1,200
B. 8,000 C. 14,000 D. 5,000
110.Around _____ years of age, children learn to change their speech style to suit the situation. A. 6 to 7
B. 7 to 8 C. 2 to 3 D. 4 to 5
111.Five-year old Donna speaks in shorter, simpler sentences to her baby brother, in a very informal way with friends, and uses a more formal language with her father’s friends. Donna is demonstrating her grasp of:
112.Developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarten level are likely to be: A. child-centered.
113.The _____ is a philosophy of education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.
A. child-centered kindergarten
B. Montessori approach
C. developmentally appropriate practice D. developmentally inappropriate practice
114.Nurturing is a key aspect of the _____, which emphasizes the education of the whole child and concern for his/her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.
A. child-centered kindergarten
B. Montessori approach
C. developmentally appropriate practice D. Reggio Emilia approach
115.Dorothy is enrolled in a preschool where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. Which of the following approaches is Dorothy’s preschool using?
116.Which of the following is a criticism related to the Montessori approach? A. It lays too much emphasis on social interaction.
B. It does not employ self-corrective materials.
C. It lays too much emphasis on imaginative play.
D. It neglects children’s socioemotional development.
117.Educators refer to this type of schooling as _____, which is based on knowledge of the typical progress of children within an age span, as well as the uniqueness of the child.
A. the child-centered kindergarten
B. developmentally appropriate practice
C. the Montessori approach
D. the success-oriented approach
118.In 1965, the federal government began an effort to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for young children in the United States through:
A. Maria Montessori Program.
B. Emancipation Undertaking.
C. Reggio Emilia Project. D. Project Head Start.
119.Early Head Start was established in 1995 to serve children from _____ years of age. A. 4 to 5
B. 2 to 4
C. 5to10 D. birth to 3
120.Which of the following is true about Head Start programs?
A. They only provide for low-income families.
B. They focus on children of a particular ethnic origin.
C. They have negative effect on young children’s language development. D. They are funded by the private corporate sector.
121.Two current controversies in early childhood education, as given in the text, involve: A. curriculum and universal preschool education in the United States.
B. the quality of inner-city schools and free education to all.
C. the use of corporal punishment in schools and the use of uniforms.
D. Christian holidays for all and boarding schools.
122.Competent early childhood programs should focus:
A. on cognitive development and socioemotional development. B. exclusively on cognitive development.
C. on preoperational skills.
D. on academics alone.
123.Which of the following was cited by Zigler and his colleagues supporting universal preschool in the United States?
AIt is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged rather . than funding preschool education for all 4-year-old children.
B. The quality of inner-city schools has often been found to be of questionable quality.
C. Research has proven that the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often
D.Universal preschool would bring billions of dollars of cost savings because of a diminished need for
remedial and justice services.
124.Critics of universal preschool education argue that:
A. quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
B. research has not proven that nondisadvantaged children benefit from attending a preschool. C. the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often understated.
D. quality preschool programs increase the likelihood that the child will drop out of school later.
125.According to critics of universal preschool education:
A. quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
Bit is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged rather . than funding preschool education for all 4-year-old children.
C preschool programs decrease the likelihood that once children go to elementary and secondary school . they will be retained in a grade or drop out of school.
D there is too much pressure on young children to achieve and it does not provide any opportunities to . actively construct knowledge.
126.This researcher showed that when the child’s attention to relevant aspects of the conservation task is improved, the child is more likely to conserve.
127.A cognitive theorist who emphasized the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.
128.An Italian physician-turned-educator, who at the beginning of the twentieth century crafted a revolutionary approach to young children’s education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.
129.A common nutritional problem in early childhood which results from the failure to eat adequate amounts of quality meats and dark green vegetables and causes chronic fatigue.
130.The substage of preoperational thought in which the young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.
131.The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and the perspective of another.
132.The awareness that altering an object’s or a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties.
133.The range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but that can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children.
134.The awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
135.Schooling based on knowledge of the typical development of children within an age span, as well as the uniqueness of the child.
136.Define what Piaget meant by an operation.
137.Briefly describe the two stages of preoperational thought.
138.What is the zone of proximal development (ZPD)? What are its lower and upper limits?
139.List three ways that Lev Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms.
140.Briefly state two criticisms leveled against Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development.
141.Why does memory span change with age?
142.Identify the factors that can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory.
143.What is the child’s theory of mind?
144.What are the criticisms of the Montessori approach to early education?
145.What are the current areas of controversy in early childhood education?
1. (p. 209) B
2. (p. 210) D
3. (p. 210) C
4. (p. 210) A
5. (p. 210) B
6. (p. 210) D
7. (p. 210) C
8. (p. 211) C
9. (p. 211) B
10. (p. 211) D
11. (p. 211) A
12. (p. 211) C
13. (p. 211) D
14. (p. 211) C
15. (p. 211) A
16. (p. 211-212) A 17. (p. 212) D
18. (p. 212) A
19. (p. 212) B
20. (p. 212) D
21. (p. 212) A
22. (p. 212) D
23. (p. 212) C
24. (p. 213) A
25. (p. 213) D
26. (p. 213) A
27. (p. 213) C
28. (p. 213) B
29. (p. 213) A
30. (p. 213-214) B 31. (p. 214) B
32. (p. 214) C 33. (p. 214) D 34. (p. 214) C 35. (p. 215) A 36. (p. 215) B
37. (p. 215) A 38. (p. 215) B 39. (p. 215) C 40. (p. 216) B 41. (p. 216) D 42. (p. 216) A 43. (p. 216) A 44. (p. 216) D 45. (p. 217) C 46. (p. 217) B 47. (p. 217) C 48. (p. 217) A 49. (p. 218) C 50. (p. 218) B 51. (p. 218) D 52. (p. 218) B 53. (p. 218) C 54. (p. 218) B 55. (p. 218) A 56. (p. 219) C 57. (p. 219) C 58. (p. 220) D 59. (p. 220) C 60. (p. 220) C 61. (p. 220) B 62. (p. 220) C 63. (p. 220) A 64. (p. 220) C 65. (p. 220) C 66. (p. 220) D 67. (p. 220) C 68. (p. 220) C 69. (p. 220) B 70. (p. 220) C 71. (p. 220) D 72. (p. 221) B 73. (p. 221) D 74. (p. 221) B
75. (p. 221) A 76. (p. 221) B 77. (p. 222) A 78. (p. 222) C 79. (p. 222) B 80. (p. 223) B 81. (p. 224) C 82. (p. 224) D 83. (p. 224) A 84. (p. 224) B 85. (p. 224) C 86. (p. 224) D 87. (p. 224) B 88. (p. 225) A 89. (p. 225) D 90. (p. 225) C 91. (p. 225) A 92. (p. 225) B 93. (p. 225) B 94. (p. 226) C 95. (p. 227) A 96. (p. 227) B 97. (p. 227) D 98. (p. 228) A 99. (p. 228) D 100. (p. 228) C 101. (p. 228) A 102. (p. 229) B 103. (p. 229) A 104. (p. 229) D 105. (p. 229) A 106. (p. 230) B 107. (p. 231) C 108. (p. 231) D 109. (p. 231) C 110. (p. 232) D 111. (p. 232) A 112. (p. 234) A
113. (p. 234) B
114. (p. 234) A
115. (p. 234) C
116. (p. 235) D
117. (p. 235) B
118. (p. 235) D
119. (p. 235) D
120. (p. 235) A
121. (p. 237) A
122. (p. 237-238) A
123. (p. 238) D
124. (p. 238) B
125. (p. 238) B
126. (p. 219) Rochel Gelman
127. (p. 221) Lev Vygotsky
128. (p. 234) Maria Montessori
129. (p. 214) Iron deficiency anemia 130. (p. 216) Symbolic function substage 131. (p. 217) Egocentrism
132. (p. 218) Conservation
133. (p. 220) Zone of proximal development
134. (p. 226) Theory of mind
135. (p. 235) Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP)
136. (p. 216) An operation is a reversible mental action that allows children to do mentally what before they could only do physically.
The intuitive thought substage occurs between approximately 4 and 7 years of age when children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to questions.
The symbolic function substage occurs roughly between the ages of 2 and 4. In this substage, the young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present but still suffer from limitations like egocentrism and animism.
137. (p. 217-218) The Piagetian preoperational stage in cognitive development can be divided into two substages: the symbolic function substage and the intuitive thought substage.
138. (p. 220) The zone of proximal development (ZPD), developed by Lev Vygotsky, consists of the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children. The lower limit of the ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently. The upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor.
5) Transform the classroom with Vygotskian ideas. 4) Place instruction in a meaningful context.
3) Use more-skilled peers as teachers.
2) Use the child’s ZPD in teaching.
1) Assess the child’s zone of proximal development.
139. (p. 221) Some of the ways that Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms are:
140. (p. 223) One criticism of Vygotsky’s theory is that Vygotsky was not specific enough about age-related changes. Another criticism is that Vygotsky did not adequately describe how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development.
141. (p. 225) One of the reasons that memory span improves with age is that rehearsal of information is important in increasing short-term memory. Older children rehearse the digits more than younger children do. Speed—especially the speed with which memory items can be identified—and efficiency of processing information are important, too.
142. (p. 225) Several factors can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory. There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion. Preschoolers are the most suggestible age group in comparison with older children and adults. There are individual differences in susceptibility. Some preschoolers are highly resistant to interviewers’ suggestions, whereas others immediately succumb to the slightest suggestion. Interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events.
143. (p. 226) Even young children are curious about the nature of the human mind. They have a theory of mind, which refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
144. (p. 235) Critics of the Montessori approach believe that it neglects children’s socioemotional development. For example, although Montessori fosters independence and the development of cognitive skills, it deemphasizes verbal interaction between the teacher and child, and between peers. Montessori’s critics also argue that it restricts imaginative play and that its heavy reliance on self-corrective materials may not adequately allow for creativity and for a variety of learning styles.
145. (p. 237) Two current controversies in early childhood education involve (1) what the curriculum for early childhood education should be, and (2) whether preschool education should be universal in the United States.
Blooms: Analyze Blooms: Apply Blooms: Remember Blooms: Understand Difficulty: Easy Difficulty: Medium Santrock – Chapter 07
# of Questions
Test Bank 14Th_Ed Life-span Development by John W. Santrock