8Th_Ed Test Bank Introduction to Clinical Psychology by Geoffrey Kramer_Vicky Phares_Douglas A.Bernstein

8Th_Ed Test Bank Introduction to Clinical Psychology by Geoffrey Kramer_Vicky Phares_Douglas A.Bernstein



Introduction to Clinical Psychology Test Bank 8 Ed by Geoffrey Kramer,Vicky Phares, Douglas A.Bernstein

Authors: Geoffrey Kramer,Vicky Phares, Douglas A.Bernstein
Edition: 8th

Product Description

8Th_Ed Test Bank Introduction to Clinical Psychology by Geoffrey Kramer_Vicky Phares_Douglas A.Bernstein

Sample Chapter

Clinical Child Psychology


1. List the ways in which working clinically with children is different from working
with adults.
2. How is the context of children’s behavior taken into consideration in evaluating and
treating childhood disorders?
3. Provide two examples of developmental issues to consider when working with troubled
4. What is infant temperament? How is it related to development over the life span?
5. What are some of the major risk factors linked to emotional/behavioral problems in
6. Discuss the ramifications of childhood physical abuse and childhood sexual abuse.
7. What are protective factors, and how are they associated with children’s behavior?
8. What are the pros and cons of using the following assessment techniques: behavior
rating scales, unstructured interviews, behavioral observations, and family interaction
9. Describe a thorough assessment protocol for a child who is experiencing academic and
behavioral problems in school.
10. What is a clinically derived system of classification? What is an empirically derived system
of classification? How are these two systems similar and different?
11. What are the major symptoms of the following disorders: ADHD, ODD, CD, major
depressive disorder, separation anxiety disorder, autism, Asperger’s disorder, and learning
12. What points from the research literature did the clinical case of “Billy”(the boy in the
grocery store) illustrate?
1.13. List the principles involved in cognitive-behavioral treatment for children, and discuss the effectiveness of this treatment with children.
2.14. Describe the research findings related to alliance with children, adolescents, and families.
3.15. Describe a prevention program that works.



Referral Processes
Contexts of Behavior
Developmental Considerations
Parent-Child Interaction Patterns
Risk Factors
Protective Factors

Behavior Rating Scales
Clinical Interviews
Intelligence and Achievement Tests
Projective Tests
Behavioral Observations
Family Interaction Measures

Classification of Childhood Disorders
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Anxiety Disorders
Autistism Spectrum Disorder
Pediatric Health Problems

Psychological Treatments for Disorders in Children and Adolescents
Pharmacological Interventions
The Therapeutic Alliance in Child Therapy
Prevention of Childhood Disorders

Diversity and Multiculturalism
Access to Care
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Research
Technology and Youth Mental Health


developmental psychopathology (p. 285)
limits on confidentiality (p. 287)
contexts of behavior (p. 287)
normative discontent (p. 287)
reciprocal or bidirectional interactions (p. 287)
corecion-escalation hypothesis (p. 287)
reinforcement trap (p. 288)
risk factors (p. 288)
temperament (p. 288)
interparental conflict (p. 289)
triangulation (p. 289)
physical abuse (p. 289)
sexual abuse (p. 289)
poverty (p. 290)
protective factors (p. 291)
resilience (p. 291)
behavior rating scales (p. 292)
clinical interviews (p. 294)
WISC-IV (p. 295)
WJ-III (p. 295)
projective tests (p. 294)
behavioral observations (p. 295)
family interaction measures (p. 295)
clinically derived categories (p. 296)
Zero to Three diagnostic system (p. 296)
comorbidity (p. 296)
externalizing problems (p. 297)
internalizing problems (p. 297)
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (p. 298)
oppositional defiant disorder (p. 298)
conduct disorder (p. 298)
disruptive disorders (p. 298)
major depressive disorder (p. 298)
anxiety disorders (p. 299)
separation anxiety disorder (p. 299)
autistic spectrum disorders (p. 299)
Asperger’s disorder (p. 299)
pervasive developmental disorder (p. 299)
pediatric psychologists (p. 300)
pharmacological treatments (p. 300)
therapeutic alliance (p. 304)
prevention programs (p. 305)
D.A.R.E. programs (p. 305)
positive psychology (p. 305)
cultural commonalities (p. 306)
access to care (p. 307)
integrated primary care (p. 307)
impact of technology (p. 308)



1. Encourage the class to think about the development of clinical child psychology in relation to both the baby boom after WWII (which saw the initial interest in child disorders), and now the impact of the “echo boom.” Can they attribute the rise in interest in child issues, at least in part, to these societal issues?

2. Discuss the reasons why, in the United States, such a low percentage (15%) of children who need services actually receive those services.


3. Have the students come up with situations in which a clinician would need to violate confidentiality with a child client. How do they feel about this? If they were parents of the child, how might they respond to these circumstances?

4. Spend time processing the notion of risk factors, protective factors, and resilience through the students’ personal memories of childhood. How did they deal with family disruptions, moves, bullying, trauma in their past? What do they think would have (or did) contribute to their resilience?


5. Have the students rate a child they know with a behavior rating scale. How was the process for them? Did they feel the descriptions were accurate? Do they agree with the authors that behavior checklists can be very helpful as part of child assessment?

6. Have a child clinician bring in the WISC-IV and the WJ-III for the students to see. Demonstrate some of the tasks that children are asked to complete on these measures.

7. Discuss with a child clinician the use of projective measures. Why do the students think that many child clinicians still utilize these measures even though they are of questionable validity and reliability?


8. Most students will not be aware that there is a discrete diagnostic category for disruptive behavior disorders, which may affect up to 25% of the child population, while all will be familiar with autism spectrum disorders, which affect less than 1% of children. Why do they think this is? Why does the media highlight the need for funding for autism research, but not so much for behavior disorders?

9. ADHD is often diagnosed by a family physician who then prescribes medication for the disorder. If the medication works, the diagnosis is assumed to be accurate. What do the students think of this process? Are there concerns that this disorder is being over diagnosed? Chances are some students in the class will have struggled with this issue. What do they think?


10. Explore the reasons why outcome research with child treatment has lagged behind that for adult intervention. Some reasons would include that it is more difficult and more expensive to conduct research because of the need to include parents and school concerns in the project. Also, child treatment involves not only the resolution of difficulties, but promoting continued developmental progress. Thus, to be thorough, it must include a longitudinal component.

11. What are some of the challenges to implementing programs aimed at preventing disorders and/or increasing resilience? Some issues that might be discussed are the individualistic nature of the American mindset and suspicion about government interference in our lives.


12. What ideas do the students have to increase the availability of mental health care for children? What locales other than schools might be used to facilitate young people’s access to both prevention and intervention services?

13. Explore some of the fields that are rapidly integrating with traditional child clinical work. See the Additional Resources segment for suggestions.


1. Explore APA Division 53 at www.clinicalchildpsychology.org. and Division 54 at www.societyofpedicatricpsychology.org. Why do you think these divisions were so late to be added to APA?

1.2. Compare the lists of effective child treatments from APA Division 53 (www.effectivechildtherapy.com) with those from the New York University Child Study Center (www.aboutourkids.org). How similar are these lists? Are there some significant differences?

1.3. Visit the Children’s Defense Fund website at www.childrensdefense.org. How does the tone of this website differ from the APA websites? What are some of the programs for which the CDF advocates?

1.4. Find the website for your local school district. Do they list any preventive programs for their students and families? Are any mental health services available? Are there resources for parents?

1.5. Explore websites that present figures on child abuse and neglect. Do the figures vary from one website to another? Is there a tendency for media-related figures to be different from more rigorous scientific or law enforcement-determined statistics? Why might this be?


• Video: No Author. (2007). Ghost in your genes. With Jean-Pierre Issa. Produced by WGHB
Boston and NOVA. Approx. 55 minutes. Information about epigenetics.
• Videos: The APA website lists 24 videos that relate to the topics in this chapter. Depending on
the orientation of the class and the instructor, these can be used to illustrate salient topics.

• Video: A video segment about mirror neurons is available at pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow3204/01.html. This 14-minute clip was aired on FrontlineNow in January, 2008. It also presents a relatively high-functioning boy with autism.

• Seigel, D. (2001). Toward an interpersonal neurobiology of the developing mind: Attachment
relationships, mindsight, and neural integration. Infant Mental Health Journal 22(1-2),
67-94. Information about the neurological correlates of development.



1. One main reason for the development of clinical child psychology is the finding that

a. traditional adult-oriented approaches to assessment and intervention may have limited applicability for childhood disorders.
b. there is an overabundance of adult therapists.
c. adult outcome research is directly applicable to childhood disorders.
d. all of the above

Answer: a Page: 285

2. The relatively new field of study that looks at the study of childhood disorders in the context of the development of competencies, as well as disorders, is

a. clinical developmental assessment.
b. behavioral developmental pathology.
c. developmental psychopathology.
d. developmental clinical intervention.

Answer: c Page: 285

3. The concept of normative discontent illustrates

a. how normally occurring behaviors become disordered.
b. how important it is to understand a child’s developmental level when assessing problems.
c. how distinct disordered behavior is from typical behaviors.
d. all of the above

Answer: b Page: 287

4. Characteristics within the child, family, or community that increase the probability a child will develop an emotional or psychological problem are called

a. abusive environments.
b. protective factors.
c. risk factors.
d. developmental resilience factors.

Answer: c Page: 288

5. An understanding that a child’s temperament and behavior influences parental behavior, and that parental tolerance and responses alter child behavior is reflected in the concept of

a. risk and resilience.
b. reciprocal or bidirectional interactions.
c. the coercion-escalation hypothesis.
d. the reinforcement trap.

Answer: b Page: 287

6. Estimates of abuse in the general child population are _______________, while estimates of the percentage of children seeking psychological care who have been abused are about _______________.

a. 5% to 26%; 46%
b. 25% to 50%; 75%
c. 10%-15%; 46%
d. these estimates have been impossible to calculate.

Answer: a Page: 288

7. Poverty is associated with which of the following?

a. housing instability
b. chaotic family environments
c. exposure to maladaptive peer networks
d. all of the above

Answer: d Page: 290

8. Behavior rating scales are

a. rarely used in clinical child assessments.
b. can be used to improve rapport in the early stages of treatment.
c. are inexpensive, easy to administer, and usually reliable and valid.
d. all of the above

Answer: c Page: 293

9. The most common intelligence test used with children is the ___________ and the most frequently used achievement test is the ____________.

a. Thematic Apperception Test; WJ-III
b. WISC-IV; Rorschach

Answer: c Page: 294

10. Behavioral observations

a. are considered an integral part of the assessment of childhood disorders.
b. are regularly done by clinicians making home visits.
c. are rarely used since the behavior rating scales that parents complete are so well-validated and complete.
d. are no more important for child assessments than for adult assessments.

Answer: a Page: 295

11. The use of projective tests with children

a. has increased in recent years.
b. is less controversial that the use of such tests with adults.
c. “sometimes…tell us poorly something we already know.”
d. provides information that it is impossible to get through observation or interviews.

Answer: c Page: 294

12. The only consistent developmental data included in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria are

a. clinically derived systems.
b. age of onset and course of the disorder.
c. comorbidity estimates.
d. using a special axis for child disorders.

Answer: b Page: 296

13. Comorbidity

a. is the co-occurrence of two or more disorders.
b. often happens in adult populations.
c. tends to be the rule, rather than the exception, in child clinical populations.
d. all of the above

Answer: d Page: 296

14. When a child is exhibits acting-out behavior, such as aggression and delinquency, these behaviors are considered

a. comorbid behaviors.
b. internalizing behaviors.
c. externalizing behaviors.
d. resilient behaviors.

Answer: c Page: 297

15. When a child experiences depression, anxiety, somatic problems, and other significant discomfort, these are indications of

a. comorbid behaviors.
b. internalizing behaviors.
c. externalizing behaviors.
d. resilient behaviors.

Answer: b Page: 297

16. The core features of ADHD include

a. inattention.
b. impulsivity.
c. overactivity.
d. all of the above

Answer: d Page: 298

17. ADHD

a. is considered one of the most common childhood disorders.
b. affects more girls than boys.
c. usually appears after third grade when school work becomes more demanding.
d. is almost always outgrown in adulthood.

Answer: a Page: 298

18. Conduct disorder (CD)

a. is more severe than Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD).
b. is often preceded by ODD.
c. is referred to in the DSM as a disruptive behavior disorder.
d. all of the above

Answer: d Page: 298

19. When prevalence estimates for CD and ODD are combined, ___________of children can be considered to have one of these disruptive disorders.

a. 2% to 10% of both boys and girls
b. 2% to 16% of girls and 4% to 16% of boys
c. 4% to 25% of girls and boys
d. 4% to 25% of girls or 4% to 32% of boys

Answer: d Page: 298

20. Major depressive disorder

a. is almost never seen in children or adolescents.
b. is more common in male adolescents than female adolescents.
c. may present different symptom patterns based on the child’s developmental stage.
d. requires the person to experience sadness, lethargy, and/or disturbances in energy for at least two months.

Answer: c Page: 299

21. Children with separation anxiety disorder

a. are more likely to be boys than girls.
b. can be diagnosed from the age of 12 months.
c. experience symptoms of distress upon separation from their caregivers for at least four months.
d. experience distress upon separation, concerns about future separations, and are reluctant to be alone.

Answer: d Page: 299

22. Autistic spectrum disorders

a. have evidenced an alarming rate of increase in the past decade.
b. are characterized by difficulties in social functioning.
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b

Answer: c Page: 299

23. Asperger’s disorder is

a. a less severe pervasive developmental disorder than autistic disorder.
b. is characterized by poor social skills.
c. more common than autistic disorder.
d. all of the above

Answer: d Page: 299

24. Pediatric psychologists received specialized training in

a. the administration of children’s hospitals.
b. mental health problems associated with physical conditions.
c. the administration and prescribing of medications to children.
d. all of the above

Answer: b Page: 300

25. Pediatric psychologists are committed to

a. the treatment of mental conditions in children that are related to physical illnesses.
b. the prevention of mental conditions that might arise because of physical illnesses in children.
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b

Answer: c Page: 300

26. As with assessment, child therapy poses particular challenges to clinicians related to the fact that children

a. often are eager to get their problems solved and try to rush the process.
b. don’t refer themselves for treatment and so successful treatment often requires parental motivation and cooperation.
c. have difficulty forming an alliance with the therapist because they are still attached to their parents.
d. all of the above

Answer: b Page: 300

27. Many of our most effective treatments for children include

a. the use of humanistic approaches to increase self-esteem.
b. cognitive-behavioral interventions.
c. the increased use of medications without concurrent psychotherapy.
d. a strict behavioral approach, especially with adolescents.

Answer: b Page: 303

28. Which of the following characteristics were found to be related to increased improvement in child and adolescent functioning?

a. therapeutic alliance with the parent
b. child’s and parent’s willingness to participate in treatment
c. therapist interpersonal and direct influence skills
d. all of the above

Answer: d Page: 304

29. Which of the following has NOT been demonstrated to be an effective program for preventing mental health problems in children and adolescents?

a. improving parent-child attachment
b. large-scale anti-bullying programs
c. DARE program
d. positive psychology interventions aimed at enhancing resilience

Answer: c Page: 305

30. The cooperation of professionals from many disciplines to facilitate the successful treatment of children and adolescents

a. will involve neuroscientists and behavioral geneticists, but not clinical psychologists.
b. is supporting the concept of integrated primary care.
c. is currently on the decline.
d. all of the above

Answer: b Page: 307


31. For much of the 20th century, behavior and emotional disorders in children were largely overlooked.

Answer: True Page: 285

32. Over half of children with diagnosable psychological disorders receive outpatient mental health treatment.

Answer: False Page: 286

33. Diagnosing childhood disorders can be challenging because many children evidence symptoms at some point in their lives.

Answer: True Page: 287

34. A difficult temperament, which is usually considered largely genetically determined, is considered a risk factor for psychological disorders.

Answer: True Page: 288

35. It is very rare that a family member, or person known to the family, is a perpetrator of sexual abuse on a child.

Answer: False Page: 289

36. Although growing up in poverty is known to be a risk factor for a variety of disorders, since it affects less than 10% of the population, it is rarely considered a significant issue for psychologists to pay attention to.

Answer: False Page: 290

37. Children display resilience when they show positive outcomes even when exposed to one or more risk factors.

Answer: True Page: 291

38. Behavior rating scales have become a standard part of almost all child assessment batteries because they are inexpensive, easy to administer, and usually reliable and valid.

Answer: True Page: 292

39. Behavior problems and academic difficulties are related in complex ways, with one often affecting the other.

Answer: True Page: 294

40. The broadband concepts of internalizing and externalizing disorders are new to the field and lack empirical support.

Answer: False Page: 297


41. Discuss the reasons that, after years of focusing on adult disorders, attention is now being devoted to understanding and treating childhood psychopathology. (Pages: 285-286)

42. Discuss Patterson’s approach of looking at how parents and children “teach” one another to rely on behaviors that tend to increase childhood aggressiveness. (Page: 287)

43. Discuss the factors that affect the degree of negative impact sexual abuse is likely to have on a child. (Page: 290)

44. How are risk factors, protective factors, and resilience related? (Pages: 288, 291, 305)

45. Why do some clinicians have some concerns with structured interviews? (Page: 294)

46. Discuss why high rates of comorbidity among childhood disorders raise questions about the validity of the DSM system. (Pages: 296-297)

47. Why is there an increasing interest in collaboration among professionals who are interested in improving children’s lives? (Page: 307)




8Th_Ed Test Bank Introduction to Clinical Psychology by Geoffrey Kramer_Vicky Phares_Douglas A.Bernstein


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