8Th_Ed Test Bank Community & Public Health Nursing_Promoting the Publics Health by Allender-Rector-Warner
Chapter 1, The Journey Begins
1. After teaching a group of nursing students about the similarities and differences between public health and community health, which of the following statements by a nursing student would indicate knowledge of the similarities and differences between public health and community health?
A) “Community health nursing is defined as nursing care that is provided in a community setting, rather than an institutional setting.”
B) “Public health nursing is defined as nursing care that is provided in an institutional setting.”
C) “Public health nursing is focused on the health of individuals.”
D) “Community health nursing can shape the quality of community health services and improve the health of the general public.”
Operating within an environment of rapid change and increasingly complex challenges, this nursing specialty holds the potential to shape the quality of community health services and improve the health of the general public.
2. Which of the following statements would best describe the difference between public health nursing and community health nursing?
A) Public health nursing is focused on the private aspects of health, and community health nursing is focused on the public aspects of health.
B) In our textbook, the term community health practice refers to a focus on specific, designated communities and is a part of the larger public health effort.
C) Public health nursing and community health nursing relate to the very same types of services and perspectives.
D) Both public health nursing and community health nursing are practiced exclusively within institutions.
In this textbook, community health practice refers to a focus on specific, designated communities. It is a part of the larger public health effort and recognizes the fundamental concepts and principles of public health as its birthright and foundation for practice. Public health nursing is focused on the public aspects of health. Public health nursing and community health nursing have distinctive types of services and perspectives. Neither public health nursing nor community health nursing is practiced exclusively within institutions.
3. Which of the following is most accurate about the concept of community?
A) A community is a collection of people who share some important features of their lives.
B) Community members live in the same geographic location.
C) Community members are biologically related.
D) A community is made up of people who do not necessarily interact with one another and do not necessarily share a sense of belonging to that group.
The broad definition of a community is a collection of people who share some important features of their lives. Community members may not live in the same geographic location as in a common-interest community or a community of solution. A population is made up of people who do not necessarily interact with one another and do not necessarily share a sense of belonging to that group.
4. A group of students are reviewing material for a test on populations, communities, and aggregates. Which of the following indicates that the students understand these concepts?
A) Members of a population share a sense of belonging.
B) Communities and populations are types of aggregates.
C) Individuals of a community are loosely connected.
D) Members of an aggregate share a strong bond.
An aggregate refers to a mass of grouping of distinct individuals who are considered as a whole and who are loosely associated with one another. Communities and populations are types of aggregates. A population is made up of people who do not necessarily interact with one another and do not necessarily share a sense of belonging to the group. A community is a collection of people who chose to interact with one another because of common interests, characteristics, or goals, which form the basis for a sense of unity or belonging.
5. Which of the following would a community health nurse identify as a community of common interest?
A) The global community
B) Small rural town in a northern state
C) National professional organization
D) Counties addressing water pollution
A common-interest community shares a common interest or goal that binds the members together. Membership in a national professional organization is one example. The global community and a small rural town in a northern state would be examples of a geographic community. Counties addressing a water pollution problem would be an example of a community of solution.
6. The nurse is working with a community of solution. Which of the following would the nurse expect to find?
A) A health problem affecting the group
B) Common goal binding members together
C) Sharing of a similar goal
D) Locational boundaries
A community of solution involves a group of people coming together to solve a problem that affects them. A common-interest community involves a collection of people widely scattered geographically who have an interest or goal that binds the members together. A geographical community is one defined by its geographical or locational boundaries.
7. Which one of the following statements made by a student would the nurse educator recognize as evidence that a student understands the health continuum?
A) The distinction between health and illness is well demarcated.
B) Illness refers to a state of being relatively unhealthy.
C) The term health is limited to reflect an individual’s state.
D) Treatment of acute conditions reflects the current focus of health care.
Although society typically depicts an absolute line of difference between being either well or ill, health is considered a relative term. Thus, illness is viewed as a state of being relatively unhealthy. Health is typically described as a continuum that involves a range of degrees from optimal health at one end to total disability or death at the other. The line of demarcation is not clear. Health applies to individuals, families, and communities. Traditionally, most health care has focused on the treatment of acute and chronic conditions at the illness end of the continuum, but this emphasis is shifting to focus on the wellness end.
8. When discussing the concept of the health continuum with a class, the nurse educator would be certain to include which statement in the description?
A) Wellness is a relative concept, not an absolute, and illness is a state of being relatively unhealthy.
B) A client’s placement on the health continuum is static throughout time.
C) Health is best described as cyclic.
D) The health continuum can only be applied to individuals.
Wellness is a relative concept, not an absolute, and illness is a state of being relatively unhealthy. The continuum can change. Because health involves a range of degrees from optimal health at one end to total disability or death at the other, it is often described as a continuum. The health continuum applies not only to individuals but also to families and communities.
9. After discussing the leading health indicators with a class, which condition if stated by the class as one of these indicators suggests that the class has understood the information?
A) Cardiac disease
B) Mental health
C) Sedentary lifestyle
D) Maternal health care
Mental health is a leading health indicator. Other leading health indicators include physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance use, responsible sexual behavior, injury and violence, environmental quality, immunization, and access to health care.
10. Which of the following statements about health promotion and disease prevention is the most accurate?
A) Health promotion and disease prevention include all efforts that seek to move people closer to optimal well-being or higher levels of wellness.
B) Disease prevention differs from health promotion in that disease prevention is targeted toward a specific disease or diseases.
C) Health promotion can be described in terms of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.
D) The goal of disease prevention is to raise levels of wellness for individuals, families, populations, and communities.
Health promotion includes all efforts that seek to move people closer to optimal well-being or higher levels of wellness. The goal of health promotion is to raise levels of wellness for individuals, families, populations, and communities. Disease prevention is targeted toward a specific disease or diseases and consists of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.
11. A group of community health nursing students design a health education program for a group of pregnant teens that includes teaching nutrition during pregnancy, demonstrating helpful exercises, and discussing their concerns. This is an example of which of the following?
A) Health promotion
B) Treatment of disorders
The student nurses are engaging in health promotion activities. Health promotion incorporates all efforts that seek to move people closer to optimal well-being or to higher levels of wellness. Treatment of disorders would include direct care for issues involving the group, such as complications that might arise in this population. Rehabilitation would involve activities to minimize disability or restore or preserve function. Evaluation would involve an analysis of the effectiveness of these activities.
12. The community health nurse is developing a plan of primary prevention activities. Which of the following might the nurse include? Select all that apply.
A) Teaching about safe-sex practices to high school students
B) Encouraging older adults to install safety devices in the bathroom
C) Providing regular immunization programs for communicable diseases
D) Participating in cholesterol screening programs at health fairs
E) Providing skin testing for tuberculosis for children over 1 year of age
F) Working with a group testing water samples for contamination
Ans: A, B, C
Primary prevention activities are those taken to keep illness or injuries from occurring. These include teaching about safe-sex practices, encouraging older adults to use safety devices in the bathroom, and providing regular immunization programs for communicable diseases. Cholesterol screening programs, skin tests for tuberculosis, and working with a group testing water samples for contamination are examples of secondary prevention activities.
13. A community health nurse is preparing a presentation for a group of nursing students about community health nursing. Which of the following descriptions about community health nursing would the nurse most likely include in the presentation?
A) Focusing on addressing continuous needs
B) Working with the client as an equal partner
C) Engaging in tertiary prevention as the priority
D) Encouraging clients to reach out to the nurse
The community health nurse works with the client as an equal partner, encouraging autonomy. At any time, the nurse deals with continuous and episodic needs simultaneously. Primary prevention is the priority for community health nurses. The community health nurse engages in primary prevention as the priority, having the obligation to actively reach out to all who might benefit from a specific activity or service.
14. A community health nurse is working with other members of a team that will be implementing a citywide immunization program. The nurse is coordinating the services and addressing the needs of the population groups to ensure which of the following?
A) Involvement of the community
B) Client participation
C) Continuity of service
D) Plan for follow-up
Working in cooperation with other team members and coordinating services and addressing the needs of population groups are essential to interprofessional collaboration. In doing so, the community health nurse is preventing fragmentation and gaps thereby ensuring continuity of service. Involvement of the community and client participation are important but these help to ensure that the clients are viewed as equal partners of the health care team. A plan for follow-up may or may not be appropriate. In addition, it is the only aspect that may be addressed with the program.
15. A community health nurse works to ensure the greatest good for the greatest number of people by applying which of the following?
A) Secondary prevention activities
The ethical theory of utilitarianism promotes the greatest good for the greatest number. Primary prevention activities, not secondary prevention, are the priority. Autonomy refers to the freedom of choice. Justice involves treating people fairly.
16. When working in the community, the community health nurse adopts the teaching plan to ensure that the population understands the basic information provided to address which of the following?
B) Health disparities
C) Health literacy
D) Episodic needs
Consumers are often intimated by health professionals and are uninformed about health and health care affecting the quality of care. Adopting a teaching plan to ensure that the population understands the basic information addresses health literacy, the ability to read, understand, and use health care information appropriately. Doing so helps to ensure that the teaching plan will be effective. Self-care refers to the process of taking responsibility for developing one’s own health potential by actively participating in promoting one’s own health. Health disparities reflect differences in all aspects of health care related to vulnerable populations. Episodic needs are one-time specific negative health events that arise and are not an expected part of life.
17. Which of the following would be crucial for the community health nurse to address as the priority when dealing with policy makers about the development of community health programs?
A) Research-based best practices
B) Population’s make up
C) Amount of services to be provided
D) Scarcity of the available resources
Decisions for programs or services are often made on the basis of cost-effectiveness or cost–benefit. Therefore, community health nurses must provide policy makers with information about best practices, grounded in research. Although population make up, amount of services to be provided, and scarcity of resources are factors that may need to be considered, the community health nurse must demonstrate evidence-based practice.
18. After a class that described the differences between acute care nursing and community health nursing, which statement by the class about community health nurses indicates successful teaching?
A) Use a reactive approach.
B) Seek out potential health problems.
C) Concentrate on the illness end of the continuum.
D) Emphasize curative care.
Community health nurses, in contrast to acute care nurses, seek out potential health problems, identifying high-risk groups and instituting preventive programs; use a proactive approach; concentrate on the wellness end of the health continuum; and put less emphasis on curative care.
19. Which of the following activities would be associated with a community health nurse? Select all that apply.
A) Examining infants in a city well-baby clinic
B) Caring for elderly stroke victims in their homes
C) Providing emergency care in an acute care facility
D) Carrying out epidemiologic research
E) Participating in health policy analysis
Ans: A, B, D, E
Community health nurses work in every conceivable kind of community agency, from a state public health department to a community-based advocacy group. Their duties rang from examining infants in a well-baby clinic or teaching elderly stroke victims in their homes to carrying out epidemiologic research or engaging in health policy analysis and decision making. Providing care in an acute care facility would not be an activity associated with a community health nurse.
20. The term health can be described in many different ways. A community health nurse would view health as which of the following?
A) The absence of disease
B) The potential to lead a productive life
C) An environment free of toxins
D) A holistic state of well-being
Community health nurses view health as a holistic state of well-being, which includes soundness of mind, body, and spirit. Along with this foundational view is the emphasis on wellness, which includes the definition of health as well as the capacity to develop a person’s potential to lead a fulfilling and productive life. Health is more than just the absence of disease or an environment free of toxins.
21. While interviewing a client, which of the following statements would a nurse identify as reflecting an objective dimension of health?
A) “I’m feeling better since I started taking that medication.”
B) “Life is pretty good right now, except for an occasional upset stomach.”
C) “I’m able to wash myself in the mornings with just a bit of help.”
D) “Sometimes when I wake up, I don’t even want to face the day.”
The objective dimension of health involves one’s ability to function in daily activities. The statement about being able to care for one’s self is an example. The statements of feeling better with medication, life being pretty good, and not wanting to face the day are examples of the subjective dimension of health, which involves how people feel.
22. When employing a population-oriented focus, the community health nurse would do which of the following?
A) Assess the groups’ relationships looking for a common need.
B) Consider the members individually for similarities.
C) Focus on the geographical area of the population.
D) Promote the groups’ dependency for improving health.
A population-oriented focus requires the assessment of relationships, considering the groups or communities in relationship to the rest of the community to discover common needs or risks for a common health problem. The nurse does not consider the groups or communities separately but rather in context. The population may or may not be delineated by the geographical area. The community health nurse encourages individuals’ participation to promote their autonomy rather than permitting dependency.
23. A community health nurse is involved in a project to evaluate the health of a city. Which of the following findings would suggest that the city would most likely need additional programs?
A) Citizens are actively involved in the city’s department of recreation and after-school programs.
B) The construction of affordable organized housing developments and communities is nearing completion.
C) Approximately one third of the people are recently unemployed due to closure of the automotive factory.
D) Several new recreational facilities for adults and children have been created at several locations.
A healthy city is one in which there is continual creation and improvement the physical and social environments with expansion of community resources so that people can mutually support one another. It is characterized by the meeting of basic needs for all of the city’s people. This would include food, water, shelter, income, safety, and work. Loss of employment of one third of the city’s workforce would be a threat to the health of the city and necessitate intervention. Active involvement in the city’s functioning, affordable housing, and recreational facilities are suggestive of a healthy city.
8Th_Ed Test Bank Community & Public Health Nursing_Promoting the Publics Health by Allender-Rector-Warner