Biopsychology: 9th Edition Test Bank - Pinel

Biopsychology: 9th Edition Test Bank – Pinel

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Biopsychology: 9th Edition Test Bank – Pinel
What: TEST BANK
Year Published: 2014
Authors: Pinel
Edition: 9th

Product Description

Biopsychology: 9th Edition Test Bank – Pinel

 

Biopsychology: 9th Edition Test Bank – Pinel

 

Sample

 

Chapter 10

Brain Damage and Neuroplasticity: Can the Brain Recover from Damage?

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1)  The 8th cranial nerve

  1. A) is a sensory nerve that comes from the ear.
  2. B) carries auditory information.
  3. C) carries vestibular information.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 234

Topic: Chapter 10 Introduction

Type: (Applied)

 

 

2)  The 8th cranial nerve is the

  1. A) auditory-vestibular nerve.
  2. B) vagus nerve.
  3. C) trigeminal nerve.
  4. D) olfactory nerve.
  5. E) facial nerve.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 234

Topic: Chapter 10 Introduction

Type: (Factual)

 

 

3)  A tumor is

  1. A) a neoplasm.
  2. B) cluster of cells that grows independently of the rest of the body.
  3. C) an aneurysm.
  4. D) a thrombus.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 235

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

4)  Meningiomas are

  1. A) encapsulated.
  2. B) diffuse.
  3. C) infiltrating.
  4. D) metastatic.
  5. E) malignant.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 235

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

5)  Which type of tumor would be most easy to localize in a CT scan or a brain section?

  1. A) an infiltrating tumor
  2. B) a metastatic tumor
  3. C) an encapsulated tumor
  4. D) a malignant tumor
  5. E) a congenital tumor

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 235

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

6)  Which type of tumor is likely to be benign?

  1. A) encapsulated
  2. B) metastatic
  3. C) infiltrating
  4. D) malignant
  5. E) congenital

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 235

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

7)  Acoustic neuromas are

  1. A) encapsulated.
  2. B) benign.
  3. C) located on the 8th cranial nerve.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 235

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

8)  If a person developed a brain tumor as a result of chronic cigarette smoking, the tumor would likely be

  1. A) metastatic.
  2. B) malignant.
  3. C) encapsulated.
  4. D) both A and B.
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref:  235

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

9)  Metastasis is a term that refers

  1. A) specifically to malignant tumors.
  2. B) to tumors that have spread from the lungs to the brain.
  3. C) to infiltrating tumors.
  4. D) to the spread of disease from one organ to another.
  5. E) to tumors and other growths that are attracted to neural tissue.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 235

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

10)  “Stroke” commonly refers to

  1. A) closed-head injuries of sudden onset.
  2. B) cancerous brain tumors of sudden onset.
  3. C) cerebrovascular disorders of sudden onset.
  4. D) brain infarcts.
  5. E) cerebral attacks.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 235

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

11)  Strokes are caused by

  1. A) tardive penumbra.
  2. B) cerebral hemorrhage.
  3. C) cerebral ischemia.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

12)  Which of the following is most likely to lead to an intracerebral hemorrhage?

  1. A) a bursting aneurysm
  2. B) a hematoma
  3. C) cerebral ischemia
  4. D) thrombosis
  5. E) embolism

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

13)  Aneurysms are often

  1. A) congenital.
  2. B) caused by vascular poisons.
  3. C) caused by infection.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

14)  Cerebral ischemia is a disruption of the supply of __________ to the __________.

  1. A) glutamate; brain
  2. B) blood; heart
  3. C) air; body
  4. D) neurotransmitters; brain
  5. E) blood; brain

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

15)  When a thrombus moves to another site and becomes lodged there, the thrombus is called

  1. A) a thrombosis.
  2. B) a bolus.
  3. C) an embolus.
  4. D) an infarct.
  5. E) an aneurysm.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

16)  Both thrombuses and emboluses are

  1. A) plugs that block blood flow.
  2. B) tumors.
  3. C) causes of arteriosclerosis.
  4. D) infarcts.
  5. E) hematomas.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

17)  A disorder in which fat deposits cause the walls of blood vessels to thicken and reduce blood flow is

  1. A) arteriosclerosis.
  2. B) contusion.
  3. C) embolism.
  4. D) dementia.
  5. E) encephalitis.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

18)  Which of the following is a cerebrovascular disorder?

  1. A) cerebral arteriosclerosis
  2. B) cerebral embolism
  3. C) cerebral thrombosis
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and CAnswer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

19)  Sites of arteriosclerosis are most readily apparent in

  1. A) a Nissl-stained brain section.
  2. B) a CT scan.
  3. C) an fMRI image.
  4. D) an angiogram.
  5. E) a PET scan.

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

20)  Much of the brain damage caused by cerebral ischemia is not observed for 1 or 2 __________ following the stroke.

  1. A) seconds
  2. B) minutes
  3. C) hours
  4. D) days
  5. E) years

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

21)  Brain damage following ischemic strokes seems to be caused by

  1. A) NMDA buildup.
  2. B) excessive serotonin release.
  3. C) an imbalance of GABA.
  4. D) norepinephrine inhibition.
  5. E) excessive glutamate release.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 237

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

22)  Following cerebral ischemia,

  1. A) glutamate is released in excessive quantities.
  2. B) excessive activity is induced at NMDA receptors.
  3. C) excessive numbers of calcium and sodium ions enter postsynaptic neurons.
  4. D) postsynaptic neurons slowly die.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 237

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

23)  Given the cascade of events leading to ischemia-produced brain damage, __________ antagonists administered immediately after a stroke might reduce the development of brain damage.

  1. A) GABA
  2. B) glutamate
  3. C) acetylcholinesterase
  4. D) dopamine
  5. E) serotonin

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 237

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

24)  Brain injuries produced by blows that do not penetrate the skull are called

  1. A) closed-head injuries.
  2. B) contrecoup injuries.
  3. C) hematomas.
  4. D) contusions.
  5. E) lacerations.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 237

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

25)  Contusions

  1. A) occur only when the brain is punctured by a sharp object.
  2. B) involve hemorrhage and hematoma.
  3. C) are often produced by the brain slamming against the inside of the skull.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 237

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

26)  A hematoma is a

  1. A) type of dementia.
  2. B) localized collection of clotted blood.
  3. C) bruise.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 237

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

27)  When the brain slams against the inside of the skull, blood from the resulting contusion often accumulates in the

  1. A) subdural space.
  2. B) ventricles.
  3. C) internal canal.
  4. D) fissures.
  5. E) sulci.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 238

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

28)  In a car accident, a woman banged the front of her head on the steering wheel. A subsequent CT scan revealed a subdural hematoma over the left occipital lobe. The woman clearly had suffered a

  1. A) contrecoup injury.
  2. B) contusion.
  3. C) concussion.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 238

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

29)  When there is a disturbance of consciousness following a blow to the head and there is no evidence of physical damage, the diagnosis is

  1. A) contusion.
  2. B) laceration.
  3. C) concussion.
  4. D) hematoma.
  5. E) aneurysm.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 238

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

30)  The punch-drunk syndrome typically results from the cumulative effects of many minor

  1. A) contusions.
  2. B) concussions.
  3. C) infarcts.
  4. D) aneurysms.
  5. E) embolisms.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 238

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

31)  The punch-drunk syndrome suggests that each individual concussion is associated with

  1. A) some lasting damage.
  2. B) dementia.
  3. C) scarring.
  4. D) a contusion.
  5. E) meningitis.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 238

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

32)  The brain inflammation resulting from an infection is termed

  1. A) general paresis.
  2. B) dementia.
  3. C) encephalitis.
  4. D) meningitis.
  5. E) tardive dyskinesia.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 238

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

33)  Meningitis is

  1. A) the result of a bacterial infection.
  2. B) a type of encephalitis.
  3. C) an inflammation of the meninges of the brain.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 238

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

34)  General paresis is

  1. A) an officer in the Spanish army.
  2. B) a mild general paralysis.
  3. C) the insanity and intellectual impairment associated with advanced cases of syphilis.
  4. D) a bacterial infection that attacks a large group of people.
  5. E) a viral infection that attacks a large group of people.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 248

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

35)  Rabies is caused by

  1. A) a bacterial infection usually transmitted in the saliva of a rabid animal.
  2. B) a bacterial infection usually transmitted in the saliva of a rabbit animal.
  3. C) a virus.
  4. D) an embolism.
  5. E) an infarct.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 238

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

36)  The mumps and herpes simplex viruses are common examples of

  1. A) cerebral tumors.
  2. B) viruses that can attack the brain but do not have a particular affinity for brain tissue.
  3. C) diseases that usually cause brain abscesses.
  4. D) viruses that have a particular affinity for brain tissue.
  5. E) bacterial infections.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 238

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

37)  A “crackpot,” in the original sense of the word, was a person who was suffering from

  1. A) the effects of lead poisoning.
  2. B) a type of toxic psychosis.
  3. C) general paresis.
  4. D) tardive dyskinesia.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 239

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

38)  The word “crackpot” originally referred to people suffering from

  1. A) caffeine poisoning.
  2. B) tea poisoning.
  3. C) syphilis.
  4. D) lead poisoning.
  5. E) mercury poisoning.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 239

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

39)  Tardive dyskinesia is caused by

  1. A) the chronic use of some kinds of antipsychotic drugs.
  2. B) lead poisoning.
  3. C) toxic psychosis.
  4. D) mercury poisoning.
  5. E) viral infection.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 239

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

40)  Involuntary smacking and sucking movements of the lips, thrusting and rolling of the tongue, lateral jaw movements, and puffing of the cheeks are all symptoms of

  1. A) tardive dyskinesia.
  2. B) general paresis.
  3. C) dementia.
  4. D) mercury poisoning.
  5. E) lead poisoning.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 239

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

41)  Which of the following can act as an endogenous neurotoxin?

  1. A) mercury
  2. B) lead
  3. C) an antibody
  4. D) tardive dyskinesia
  5. E) an infarct

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

42)  Neuropsychological disorders with genetic causes are not usually related to dominant genes because

  1. A) those who possess them are less likely to produce fit offspring.
  2. B) dominant genes are usually singular.
  3. C) recessive genes are far more potent.
  4. D) recessive genes are far more common.
  5. E) humans are not still evolving.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 239

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

43)  Neurological disorders are rarely caused by dominant genes

  1. A) because all individuals carrying them would be at a major disadvantage in terms of survival and reproduction.
  2. B) unless the dominant genes do not express themselves until after the peak reproductive years.
  3. C) because dominant genes rarely mutate.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 239

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

44)  Down syndrome is

  1. A) a toxic psychosis.
  2. B) a toxic dementia.
  3. C) the result of a single abnormal dominant gene.
  4. D) is associated with a lack of acetylcholine.
  5. E) the result an extra chromosome 21 resulting from a genetic accident.

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 239

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

45)  Which of the following disorders results from a mutation that produces an extra chromosome 21?

  1. A) Down syndrome
  2. B) meningitis
  3. C) tardive dyskinesia
  4. D) general paresis
  5. E) multiple sclerosis

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 239

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

46)  Cell death produced by activation of a cell’s genetic program for suicide is called

  1. A) apoptosis.
  2. B) necrosis.
  3. C) an infarct.
  4. D) gliosis.
  5. E) a tragedy.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 239

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

47)  The process by which neurons passively die as the result of injury is

  1. A) apoptosis.
  2. B) necrosis.
  3. C) dementia pugilistic.
  4. D) fasciculation.
  5. E) general paresis.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 240

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

48)  Necrotic cell death

  1. A) usually involves inflammation.
  2. B) is usually much slower than apoptotic cell death.
  3. C) usually requires several days.
  4. D) is the result of a genetic program for self-destruction.
  5. E) is apoptotic.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 240

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

49)  Neural apoptosis usually begins with

  1. A) inflammation of the area.
  2. B) ischemia.
  3. C) shrinkage of the cell body.
  4. D) swelling of the axon.
  5. E) retrograde degeneration.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 240

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

50)  The diagnosis of epilepsy is applied to all people who experience

  1. A) convulsions.
  2. B) seizures.
  3. C) scalp electroencephalography.
  4. D) spontaneously recurring seizures.
  5. E) clonus.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 240

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

51)  With respect to epilepsy, clonus is to tonus as

  1. A) rigidity is to tremor.
  2. B) rigidity is to loss of balance.
  3. C) loss of balance is to rigidity.
  4. D) tremor is to rigidity.
  5. E) tonus is to loss of balance.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 240

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

52)  Which of the following causes epilepsy?

  1. A) neurotoxins
  2. B) cerebrovascular diseases
  3. C) head injuries
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 240

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

53)  In epileptic patients who do not experience convulsions, the diagnosis of epilepsy rests heavily on

  1. A) postmortem evidence.
  2. B) the analysis of blood samples.
  3. C) electroencephalographic evidence.
  4. D) angiograms.
  5. E) CT scans.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 240

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

54)  An epileptic aura is a psychological experience that

  1. A) precedes the onset of epilepsy.
  2. B) precedes a convulsion.
  3. C) follows a convulsion.
  4. D) occurs during a convulsion.
  5. E) replaces a convulsion.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 240

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

55)  In partial seizures,

  1. A) there is no epileptic spiking in the EEG.
  2. B) the epileptic discharges do not spread throughout the brain.
  3. C) there is no aura.
  4. D) the seizures are always simple.
  5. E) there is no epileptic focus.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

56)  The two major categories of seizures are

  1. A) generalized and simple.
  2. B) generalized and partial.
  3. C) petit mal and grand mal.
  4. D) cortical and subcortical.
  5. E) complex and simple.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 240

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

57)  An epileptic focus is a site in the brain

  1. A) next to the thalamus.
  2. B) contralateral to the aura.
  3. C) at which generalized epileptic discharges congregate.
  4. D) at which epileptic discharges spontaneously arise and spread to other sites.
  5. E) was discovered by Jackson.

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

58)  Simple and complex are the two major categories of

  1. A) epilepsy.
  2. B) partial seizures.
  3. C) generalized seizures.
  4. D) convulsions.
  5. E) automatisms.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neuropsychological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

59)  Simple partial seizures are

  1. A) Jacksonian.
  2. B) partial seizures whose symptoms are primarily sensory or motor.
  3. C) often characterized by the systematic spread of motor symptoms through the body.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

60)  Automatisms are often components of

  1. A) complex partial seizures.
  2. B) simple partial seizures.
  3. C) generalized seizures.
  4. D) absence seizures.
  5. E) tonic-clonic seizures.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

61)  Complex partial seizures

  1. A) often result from temporal lobe pathology.
  2. B) are often characterized by automatisms.
  3. C) often include absence attacks.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

62)  A professor in the middle of a lecture unbuttoned his shirt and rebuttoned it several times in rapid succession, started to sing, and then ran out of the room. He was discovered several hours later sleeping in the rain on a bench in front of the university library. He could not remember his classroom behavior, and he had no idea how he had fallen asleep in the rain. The professor may have experienced

  1. A) a tonic-clonic attack.
  2. B) a generalized seizure.
  3. C) a complex partial seizure.
  4. D) a spike-and-wave discharge.
  5. E) an absence attack.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

63)  The most common type of epilepsy, about half the cases in adults, is

  1. A) simple partial.
  2. B) complex partial.
  3. C) tonic-clonic.
  4. D) absence.
  5. E) myoclonic.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

64)  Generalized seizures always involve

  1. A) the entire brain.
  2. B) tonus.
  3. C) clonus.
  4. D) cyanosis.
  5. E) auras.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 249

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

65)  Which of the following is a generalized seizure?

  1. A) complex partial seizure
  2. B) absence
  3. C) tonic-clonic
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

66)  Tonic-clonic convulsions produce __________, which itself can cause brain damage.

  1. A) absences
  2. B) incontinence
  3. C) cerebral hypoxia
  4. D) auras
  5. E) clonus

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

67)  Which type of discharges are associated with absence seizures?

  1. A) tonic
  2. B) clonic
  3. C) tonic-clonic
  4. D) 3-per-second spike-and-wave
  5. E) absence discharges

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

68)  The 3-per-second spike and wave is

  1. A) an effective play in volleyball.
  2. B) characteristic of tonic-clonic convulsions.
  3. C) a correlate of absence seizures.
  4. D) a correlate of simple partial seizures.
  5. E) a correlate of complex partial seizures.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

69)  Which of the following is common in children and often ceases in puberty?

  1. A) absence epilepsy
  2. B) tonic-clonic epilepsy
  3. C) temporal lobe epilepsy
  4. D) simple partial epilepsy
  5. E) Jacksonian epilepsy

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Disease

Type: (Applied)

 

70)  Illustrated here are EEG discharges characteristic of

  1. A) absence seizures.
  2. B) tonic-clonic seizures.
  3. C) simple partial seizures.
  4. D) complex partial seizures.
  5. E) myoclonic seizures.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Disease

Type: (Applied)

 

 

71)  Parkinson’s disease typically strikes in

  1. A) infancy.
  2. B) childhood.
  3. C) adolescence.
  4. D) early adulthood.
  5. E) middle or late adulthood.

Answer: E

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72)  Tremor at rest, muscular rigidity, slowness of movement, and a masklike face are symptoms of

  1. A) Down syndrome.
  2. B) Parkinson’s disease.
  3. C) epilepsy.
  4. D) Huntington’s disease.
  5. E) multiple sclerosis.

Answer: B

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73)  In about 90% of patients with Parkinson’s disease, there is clear evidence that the disease was caused by

  1. A) genetic factors.
  2. B) a stroke.
  3. C) a tumor.
  4. D) a neurotoxin.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

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Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

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74)  Parkinson’s disease is associated with degeneration of the

  1. A) thalamus.
  2. B) substantia nigra.
  3. C) cerebellum.
  4. D) cortex.
  5. E) hippocampus.

Answer: B

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Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

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75)  In cases of Parkinson’s disease, the following are degenerated:

  1. A) terminals in the striatum.
  2. B) cell bodies in the substantia nigra.
  3. C) axons in the nigrostriatal pathway.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 242

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

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76)  The major neurochemical correlate of Parkinson’s disease is a reduction of

  1. A) cortical acetylcholine.
  2. B) dopamine in the substantia nigra and striatum.
  3. C) acetylcholine in the striatum.
  4. D) serotonin in the cortex.
  5. E) the ratio of acetylcholine to dopamine in the cortex.

Answer: B

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77)  The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are temporarily alleviated in some patients by injections of

  1. A) L-DOPA.
  2. B) tyrosine.
  3. C) dopamine.
  4. D) serotonin.
  5. E) adrenaline.

Answer: A

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78)  Although L-DOPA does have some beneficial effects, it is not a solution to the problem of Parkinson’s disease because it

  1. A) typically becomes less and less therapeutically effective with use.
  2. B) is too expensive.
  3. C) can be safely administered to only a small proportion of patients.
  4. D) is unstable at room temperature.
  5. E) does not pass through the blood-brain barrier.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 242

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

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79)  Which general class of drugs is useful in treating Parkinson’s disease?

  1. A) dopamine agonists
  2. B) dopamine antagonists
  3. C) MAO inhibitors
  4. D) tricyclics
  5. E) phenothiazines

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 242

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

80)  Which of the following is a controversial treatment for Parkinson’s disease?

  1. A) electroconvulsive shock
  2. B) deep brain stimulation
  3. C) prefrontal lobotomy
  4. D) split-brain operations
  5. E) dopamine antagonists

Answer: B

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81)  The first sign of Huntington’s disease is often

  1. A) increased fidgetiness.
  2. B) visual deterioration.
  3. C) increased clonus.
  4. D) vestibular difficulty.
  5. E) attentional difficulty.

Answer: A

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Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

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82)  Huntington’s disease is associated with

  1. A) increased fidgetiness.
  2. B) jerky, writhing movements of entire limbs.
  3. C) severe dementia.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 243

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

83)  A progressive disorder that often involves complex, involuntary, jerky, writhing movements of entire limbs and severe mental deterioration is

  1. A) Huntington’s disease.
  2. B) Parkinson’s disease.
  3. C) tardive dyskinesia.
  4. D) Alzheimer’s disease.
  5. E) choreography.

Answer: A

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Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

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84)  Huntington’s disease

  1. A) often attacks people in their early teens.
  2. B) is caused by a single recessive gene.
  3. C) is caused by early exposure to huntingtin toxin.
  4. D) usually attacks in early childhood.
  5. E) is terminal. Answer: E

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Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

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85)  Currently, people with Huntington’s disease live for an average of __________ after the first appearance of symptoms.

  1. A) 12 days
  2. B) 8 weeks
  3. C) 9 months
  4. D) 2 years
  5. E) 15 years

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 243

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Disease

Type: (Applied)

 

 

86)  Huntington’s disease is caused by

  1. A) a single dominant gene.
  2. B) a neurotoxin.
  3. C) an infection.
  4. D) a single recessive gene.
  5. E) a decline in dopamine.

Answer: A

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Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

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87)  What percentage of people carrying the Huntington’s gene develop the disorder?

  1. A) 100%
  2. B) 50%
  3. C) 25%
  4. D) about 1%
  5. E) 0%

Answer: A

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Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

88)  If one of your parents develops Huntington’s disease, the probability that you will also develop it is

  1. A) 100%.
  2. B) 50%.
  3. C) 25%.
  4. D) 1%.
  5. E) 0%.

Answer: B

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Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

89)  A person who may be carrying the gene for Huntington’s disease

  1. A) has a 25% chance of contracting the disorder.
  2. B) can have a test that will determine whether he or she has the gene.
  3. C) will inevitably die within a few weeks of the first clear signs of the disorder.
  4. D) will display the first signs of the disorder as a teenager.
  5. E) will pass the disorder to 25% of his or her children.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 243

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

90)  Multiple sclerosis

  1. A) attacks young adults.
  2. B) is associated with the development of areas of scar tissue in the CNS white matter.
  3. C) is a progressive disorder.
  4. D) is a disease of CNS myelin.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

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Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

91)  “Sclerosis” literally means

  1. A) slippery.
  2. B) hardening.
  3. C) softening.
  4. D) white scar.
  5. E) characterized by many tremors.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 243

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

92)  Multiple sclerosis

  1. A) is associated with damage to the myelin of the CNS.
  2. B) is most common in very warm climates.
  3. C) occurs at a very high rate in Africans and East Asians.
  4. D) is usually the result of a dominant gene.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 243

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

93)  Epidemiology is the study of

  1. A) epidemics.
  2. B) infections.
  3. C) the spread of neurological disorders.
  4. D) the various factors that influence the distribution of a disease in the general population.
  5. E) the spread of epidermal disorders.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 243

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

94)  It has been shown that multiple sclerosis is more common in people who spent their childhoods in a cool climate. This information was obtained from

  1. A) an experiment.
  2. B) a laboratory experiment.
  3. C) an epidemiological study.
  4. D) a clinical trial.
  5. E) a within-subject experiment.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 244

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

95)  There is a higher prevalence of multiple sclerosis among

  1. A) males.
  2. B) females.
  3. C) Africans.
  4. D) Asians.
  5. E) children.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 244

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

96)  Who is more likely to develop multiple sclerosis?

  1. A) a male Caucasian
  2. B) a female Caucasian
  3. C) a male Asian
  4. D) a female Asian
  5. E) a male African

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 244

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Disease

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

97) The immunomodulatory drugs used to treat multiple sclerosis

  1. A) are effective for most patients.
  2. B) help only some patients.
  3. C) have only slight benefits when they do help.
  4. D) are effective for half the patients but have slight benefits for the remainder.
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 244

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Disease

Type: (Applied)

 

 

98)  Multiple sclerosis appears to result from

  1. A) a faulty autoimmune reaction.
  2. B) aluminum poisoning.
  3. C) alcohol addiction.
  4. D) concussion.
  5. E) a dominant gene.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 244

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

99)  The most common cause of dementia is

  1. A) Parkinson’s disease.
  2. B) Alzheimer’s disease.
  3. C) allergic encephalomyelitis.
  4. D) Huntington’s disease.
  5. E) epilepsy.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 244

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

100)  The early stages of Alzheimer’s disease are often characterized by

  1. A) disturbances of attention.
  2. B) a selective decline in memory.
  3. C) changes in personality.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) seizures.

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 244

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

101)  Major neuropathological correlates of Alzheimer’s disease are

  1. A) neurofibrillary tangles in the neural cytoplasm.
  2. B) amyloid plaques.
  3. C) a selective decline in dopamine levels.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 244

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

102)  Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease include

  1. A) neuron loss.
  2. B) severe dementia.
  3. C) neurofibrillary tangles.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 244

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

103)  Genetic studies of Alzheimer’s disease suggest that it is

  1. A) caused by one dominant gene.
  2. B) caused by one recessive gene.
  3. C) not genetic.
  4. D) influenced by numerous genes.
  5. E) unaffected by experience.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 244

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

104)  Currently, the majority of neuroscientists assume that the primary characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease is the development of

  1. A) memory problems.
  2. B) tau and neurofibrillary tangles.
  3. C) amyloid plaques.
  4. D) dementia.
  5. E) neuron loss.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 245

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

105)  Most of the early drug treatments for Alzheimer’s disease were

  1. A) cholinergic agonists.
  2. B) cholinergic antagonists.
  3. C) dopamine agonists.
  4. D) serotonin agonists.
  5. E) noradrenergic antagonists.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 245

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

106) In typical kindling demonstrations, the first electrical stimulation elicits

  1. A) a mild convulsion.
  2. B) little or no response.
  3. C) a tonic-clonic convulsion.
  4. D) a generalized convulsion.
  5. E) both C and D

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

107)  In many kindling experiments,

  1. A) the subjects are specially bred epileptic rabbits.
  2. B) the amygdala is electrically stimulated once per day.
  3. C) convulsive drugs are administered in high doses once per week.
  4. D) anticonvulsant drugs are administered at regular intervals.
  5. E) spontaneous seizures are the ultimate result.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

108)  Kindling

  1. A) has been demonstrated in only rats and mice.
  2. B) occurs only if the interstimulation intervals are less than 1 hour.
  3. C) occurs only if the stimulation electrode is positioned in the amygdala or some other temporal-lobe nucleus.
  4. D) induces neuroplastic changes that last between 1 and 2 months.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 254

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

109)  The changes in the nervous system that are produced by kindling last

  1. A) about 1 hour.
  2. B) about 1 day.
  3. C) about 1 week.
  4. D) about 1 month.
  5. E) many months, if not indefinitely.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

110)  Kindling is considered to be a model of

  1. A) MPTP.
  2. B) Parkinson’s disease.
  3. C) absence epilepsy.
  4. D) human epileptogenesis.
  5. E) multiple sclerosis.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

111)  Kindled convulsions as usually studied do not model epilepsy in one important respect: Unless the kindling is long-term, the kindled convulsions

  1. A) are not partial.
  2. B) do not occur spontaneously.
  3. C) are not generalized.
  4. D) are not reliable.
  5. E) are not clonic.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

112)  The ultimate result of long-term kindling is a condition in which convulsions occur spontaneously. This ultimate kindled state has been used as a model of

  1. A) epilepsy.
  2. B) MS.
  3. C) epileptogenesis.
  4. D) brain damage.
  5. E) psychopathology.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

113)  About how many amygdalar stimulations does it take to kindle a syndrome of spontaneous seizures in rats

  1. A) 15.
  2. B) 300.
  3. C) 3.
  4. D) 24.
  5. E) 48.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

114) Most transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease fail to display one important feature of the human disorder:

  1. A) amyloid plaques.
  2. B) neurofibrillary tangles.
  3. C) deficits on memory tasks.
  4. D) amyloid plaques in the medial temporal lobes.
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 247

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

115)  The amyloid plaques displayed by transgenic mice are most prevalent in and around the

  1. A) structures of the medial temporal lobes.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) cerebellum.
  4. D) basal ganglia.
  5. E) parietal cortex.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 247

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

116)  MPTP in humans produces a disorder virtually identical to severe

  1. A) multiple sclerosis.
  2. B) schizophrenia.
  3. C) Huntington’s disease.
  4. D) Alzheimer’s disease.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 255

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

117)  In primates, MPTP produces damage in

  1. A) the cortex.
  2. B) the hippocampus.
  3. C) the substantia nigra.
  4. D) the cerebellum.
  5. E) motor neurons.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 255

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

118)  MPTP-treated primates have reduced levels of

  1. A) acetylcholine.
  2. B) dopamine.
  3. C) serotonin.
  4. D) GABA.
  5. E) MPTP.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 255

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

 

119)  Most drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease are

  1. A) serotonin agonists.
  2. B) dopamine agonists.
  3. C) GABA agonists.
  4. D) glutamate agonists.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 247

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

 

120)  After the axon of a typical multipolar neuron is cut, the distal segment always degenerates. This is called __________ degeneration.

  1. A) anterograde
  2. B) retrograde
  3. C) distal
  4. D) proximal
  5. E) transneural

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 247

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

121)  After the axon of a standard multipolar neuron is cut, the cell body sometimes degenerates. This is called __________ degeneration.

  1. A) anterograde
  2. B) retrograde
  3. C) proximal
  4. D) distal
  5. E) transneuronal

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 247

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

122)  Degeneration of neurons in the visual cortex after damage to the retina is an example of __________ degeneration.

  1. A) anterograde
  2. B) retrograde
  3. C) anterograde transneuronal
  4. D) retrograde transneuronal
  5. E) regenerative

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 248

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

123)  Regeneration is almost nonexistent in the __________ of adult mammals; in their __________, it is at best a hit-or-miss affair.

  1. A) PNSs; CNSs
  2. B) CNSs; PNSs
  3. C) ANSs; CNSs
  4. D) PNSs; brains
  5. E) ANSs; brains

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 249

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

124)  In the peripheral nervous systems of higher vertebrates, regenerating axons tend to be guided to their correct targets by

  1. A) growth cones.
  2. B) blueprints.
  3. C) differential adhesiveness.
  4. D) oligodendroglia.
  5. E) Schwann-cell sheaths.

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 249

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

125)  Evidence suggests that mammalian PNS neurons are capable of accurate regeneration only if they

  1. A) synapse on mammalian CNS neurons.
  2. B) receive stimulation and guidance from oligodendroglia.
  3. C) receive stimulation and guidance from Schwann cells.
  4. D) are directed by CNS neurons.
  5. E) are unmyelinated.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 249

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

126)  Oligodendroglia __________ regeneration.

  1. A) do not stimulate
  2. B) do not guide
  3. C) release factors that actively block
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 249

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

127)  In the PNS, Schwann cells promote regeneration by

  1. A) clearing the debris and scar tissue left by degeneration.
  2. B) releasing neurotrophic factors.
  3. C) releasing cell-adhesion molecules.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 249

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

128)  Oligodendroglia actively

  1. A) stimulate neural regeneration.
  2. B) block neural regeneration.
  3. C) guide neural regeneration.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 249

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

129)  Healthy axons sometimes respond to the degeneration of adjacent axons by developing __________ that grow to the synaptic sites that have been abandoned by the degenerating axons.

  1. A) collateral sprouts
  2. B) nodes of Ranvier
  3. C) phagocytes
  4. D) Schwann cells
  5. E) dendritic spines

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 250

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

130)  Collateral sprouting typically originates from

  1. A) cell bodies.
  2. B) dendrites.
  3. C) axon terminal branches or nodes of Ranvier.
  4. D) nodes of Ranvier or cell bodies.
  5. E) cell bodies or dendrites.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 250

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

131)  Sensory and motor systems are ideally suited to the study of neural reorganization because

  1. A) all animals have them.
  2. B) they are “wired” in series.
  3. C) they are “wired” in parallel.
  4. D) of their topographic layout.
  5. E) they do not regenerate.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 250

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

132)  In a classic study, Sanes and colleagues (1990) transected motor neurons that controlled the muscles of the vibrissae of rats. Several weeks later, stimulation of the area of motor cortex that had previously moved their vibrissae

  1. A) had no observable effect.
  2. B) moved their tails.
  3. C) caused the rats to run in a circle.
  4. D) moved the muscles of the face.
  5. E) stimulated the growth of neural sprouts.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 250

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

133)  Studies of neural reorganization in adult mammals make an important point: Neural reorganization

  1. A) can start to occur very quickly (i.e., within minutes).
  2. B) can, if given enough time, be of substantial magnitude.
  3. C) is extremely rare.
  4. D) is the mechanism of recovery of function after brain damage.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 250

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

134)  Reorganization of neural circuits after damage to the mammalian brain is thought to occur largely through the

  1. A) accurate regeneration of the damaged neurons.
  2. B) strengthening of existing connections by release from inhibition.
  3. C) establishment of new connections by collateral sprouting.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 251

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

135)  The main evidence that release from inhibition is a mechanism of neural reorganization after brain damage is that reorganization

  1. A) can occur very quickly.
  2. B) occurs in only inhibitory structures.
  3. C) is particularly prevalent in the cortex.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 251

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

136)  The main evidence that collateral sprouting is a mechanism of neural reorganization after brain damage is that reorganizational effects are sometimes

  1. A) very fast.
  2. B) too large to be mediated by release from inhibition of existing circuits.
  3. C) associated with the basal forebrain.
  4. D) triggered by damage.
  5. E) topographic.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 251

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

137)  Kapur (1997) studied the effects of brain damage on doctors and scientists. He concluded that

  1. A) they displayed a remarkable degree of recovery of lost cognitive functions.
  2. B) their cognitive reserve allowed them to compensate for their cognitive deficits by accomplishing cognitive tasks in alternative ways, even though they did not recover lost functions.
  3. C) their cognitive deficits were greater because they had more to lose.
  4. D) doctors recover more than scientists.
  5. E) scientists recover more than doctors.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 251

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

138)  A study of the effects of brain damage on cognitive function in doctors and scientists suggested that __________ played an important role in their “recovery.”

  1. A) age
  2. B) field of specialization
  3. C) cognitive reserve
  4. D) sex
  5. E) cognitive sprouting

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 251

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

139)  Stem cells produced in the adult hippocampus by neurogenesis will migrate short distances into areas of damage. This raises the possibility that

  1. A) neurogenesis may play a role in recovery from hippocampal damage.
  2. B) adult neurogenesis may occur in the olfactory bulbs.
  3. C) the hippocampus is related to the olfactory bulbs.
  4. D) the hippocampus is a memory structure.
  5. E) neurogenesis plays a role in regeneration.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 252

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

140)  Regeneration of CNS neurons has been promoted by implanting

  1. A) oligodendrocytes.
  2. B) Schwann cell sheaths.
  3. C) apoptosis facilitator protein.
  4. D) astrocytes.
  5. E) CNS myelin.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 253

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

141)  Bilateral transplantation of fetal substantia nigra tissue in monkeys has proven successful in alleviating the symptoms of

  1. A) Huntington’s disease.
  2. B) Alzheimer’s disease.
  3. C) MPTP poisoning.
  4. D) autotransplants.
  5. E) epilepsy.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 253

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

142)  Several clinical case studies have found that Parkinson’s patients improve following transplants of __________ , but the treatment remains controversial.

  1. A) fetal substantia nigra cells
  2. B) their own striatal cells
  3. C) their own substantia nigra cells
  4. D) adrenal cortex cells
  5. E) fetal adrenal medulla cells

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 253

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

143)  The results of a large-scale double-blind study of fetal transplants in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

  1. A) have been suppressed by drug companies.
  2. B) were very positive.
  3. C) were largely negative.
  4. D) were not positive, but very promising.
  5. E) were the first successful step in a current large-scale treatment program.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 253

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

144)  Removing tissue from one part of a person’s body and implanting it in another part of the same person is called

  1. A) a switchplant.
  2. B) an intrapatient transplant.
  3. C) an autotransplant.
  4. D) an adrenal explant.
  5. E) a self-transplant.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 253

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

145)  Autotransplants of adrenal medulla tissue have been used in an attempt to treat human

  1. A) Parkinson’s disease.
  2. B) epilepsy.
  3. C) regeneration.
  4. D) blindness.
  5. E) MPTP poisoning.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 253

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

146)  Attempts to develop an autotransplantation protocol for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease focused on the adrenal medulla because the adrenal medulla

  1. A) releases several neurotrophins.
  2. B) contains many stem cells.
  3. C) releases dopamine.
  4. D) releases steroids.
  5. E) degenerates in Parkinson patients.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 253

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

147)  In the days after a small ischemic stroke, the size of the area of brain damage normally expands. In one study of monkeys, the expansion of a motor cortex lesion was prevented by

  1. A) a program of hand training and practice.
  2. B) stem cells.
  3. C) autotransplants.
  4. D) activating cognitive reserve.
  5. E) phantom limbs.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 254

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

148)  In one study of unilateral stroke patients, practice with the disabled arm had a greater beneficial effect if

  1. A) stem cells were injected.
  2. B) the other arm was tied down.
  3. C) the practice included the other arm.
  4. D) both arms were used to perform the same task in a coordinated fashion.
  5. E) there was a phantom limb.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 255

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

149)  Which of the following have been shown to be beneficial in several animal models of human neurological disorders?

  1. A) enriched environments
  2. B) constraint
  3. C) cognitive reserve
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 255

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Factual)

 

 

150)  Phantom limbs are experienced by

  1. A) patients during surgery.
  2. B) patients during brain surgery.
  3. C) amputees.
  4. D) opium addicts.
  5. E) schizophrenics during recovery.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 255

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

151)  What percentage of amputees experience chronic, severe phantom-limb pain?

  1. A) about 0.5%
  2. B) about 1.0%
  3. C) about 1.5%
  4. D) about 50%
  5. E) about 95%

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 256

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

152)  Efforts to cure phantom limb pain have focused on destroying various components of the pathway from the stump to the cortex. About __________ of patients have received permanent benefit from this treatment.

  1. A) 0%
  2. B) 20%
  3. C) 35%
  4. D) 50%
  5. E) 70%

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 256

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

153)  Ramachandran found that the experience of phantom limbs did not come from the nerves of the amputated limbs; they came from the

  1. A) contralateral limb.
  2. B) ipsilateral limb.
  3. C) parts of the body that now activated the area of somatosensory cortex that formerly received input from the amputated limb.
  4. D) prefrontal cortex.
  5. E) circuits involved in imagination.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 256

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

154)  Philip suffered great pain in the elbow of his phantom arm, which seemed to be locked in an awkward position. Ramachandran successfully treated him by

  1. A) injecting his stump with stem cells.
  2. B) injecting his stump with curare.
  3. C) having him practice moving his phantom limb while he imagined that he saw it moving.
  4. D) having him make synchronous, bilaterally symmetrical movements of “both arms” while directly viewing his good arm and a mirror image of it where his phantom limb would have been.
  5. E) having him practice moving his phantom limb while his good arm was tied down.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 256

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1)  An area of dead tissue produced by a stroke is called an __________.

Answer: infarct

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: Applied

 

2)  A thrombus that takes a trip and gets lodged at another site is called an __________.

Answer: embolus

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 236

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: Applied

 

3)  __________ is the brain’s most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter.

Answer: Glutamate

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 237

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: Factual

 

4)  The general syndrome of insanity and dementia associated with syphilis is called general __________.

Answer: paresis

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 238

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: Applied

 

5)  Most neuropsychological diseases of genetic origin are associated with abnormal __________ genes.

Answer: recessive

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 239

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: Applied

 

6)  There are two main categories of __________ seizures: simple and complex.

Answer: partial

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: Applied

 

7)  Absence and tonic-clonic are the major categories of __________ seizures.

Answer: generalized

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 241

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: Applied

 

8)  Tremor that is most pronounced during inactivity is a symptom of __________ disease.

Answer: Parkinson’s

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 242

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: Applied

 

9)  Parkinson’s disease is associated with degeneration in the neural pathway from the __________ to the striatum.

Answer: substantia nigra

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 242

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: Applied

 

10)  Huntington’s disease is caused by a single __________ gene.

Answer: dominant

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 243

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: Applied

 

11)  If one of your parents has Huntington’s disease, the probability that you will develop it is __________ %.

Answer: 50

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 250

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: Applied

 

12)  __________ is a degenerative brain disorder that attacks CNS myelin.

Answer: Multiple sclerosis

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 243

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: Applied

 

13)  The __________ phenomenon is a model of epileptogenesis.

Answer: kindling

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neuropsychological Diseases

Type: Factual

 

14)  __________ mice are mice into which the genes of another species have been introduced.

Answer: Transgenic

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neuropsychological Diseases

Type: Factual

 

15)  The MPTP animal model is a model of __________ disease.

Answer: Parkinson’s

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 247

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neuropsychological Diseases

Type: Factual

 

16)  In mammals, regenerating some PNS axons are guided to their correct destinations by __________ cells.

Answer: Schwann

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 249

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: Factual

 

17)  Axonal degeneration in one neuron stimulates collateral __________ from adjacent neurons.

Answer: sprouting

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 250

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: Factual

 

18)  Lesions in the hippocampus increase __________ in that structure, suggesting that it may be involved in recovery of function after hippocampal damage.

Answer: neurogenesis

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 252

Topic: 10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage

Type: Factual

 

19)  There has been great interest in the possibility of treating __________ disease with fetal substantia nigra implants.

Answer: Parkinson’s

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 253

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: Factual

 

20) Transplanted __________ sheaths have been used successfully to treat transected spinal cords in experiments on laboratory animals.

Answer: Schwann cell

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 254

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: Factual

 

Essay Questions

 

1)  Most neuropsychological diseases of genetic origin are not associated with a dominant gene. Explain why this is so, and describe two situations in which there could be an exception to this general principle. Finally, describe a neuropsychological disease associated with a dominant gene, and explain why it is an exception.

Answer:

30% for explaining why neurological disorders are not usually associated with dominant genes

40% for explaining the two situations in which exceptions occur

30% for naming and discussing Huntington’s disease

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 239, 243

Topic: 10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Type: (Conceptual)

 

2)  Discuss clinical epilepsy and the main categories of epileptic seizures.

Answer:

40% for discussing the general features of epilepsy

30% for naming and discussing forms of partial seizures

30% for naming and discussing forms of generalized seizures

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 240-242

Topic: 10.2 Neuropsychological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

3)  Compare and contrast Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.

Answer:

25% for discussing Parkinson’s disease

25% for discussing Huntington’s disease

50% for comparing them

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 242-243

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

4)  It is critical to identify the primary symptom of a disorder. Explain and discuss with respect to Alzheimer’s disease and the amyloid hypothesis. What evidence is there for the amyloid hypothesis? Are there alternative hypotheses?

Answer:

25% for explaining that the development of effective treatments depends on knowing the primary symptom

25% for describing the amyloid hypothesis

30% for describing relevant evidence

20% for explaining an alternative hypothesis

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 244-245

Topic: 10.2 Neurological Diseases

Type: (Applied)

 

5)  Describe the kindling model. What aspects of epilepsy does it model?

Answer:

50% for describing kindling

50% for explaining how it can be used to model various aspects of epilepsy

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 246

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

6)  Describe the MPTP model and its discovery.

Answer:

50% for describing the events that led to the MPTP model

50% for describing the model

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 253

Topic: 10.3 Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases

Type: (Factual)

 

7)  Discuss two methods that are currently being developed for promoting recovery from nervous system damage. Describe relevant evidence.

Answer:

50% for describing the two methods

50% for describing relevant evidence and being appropriately cautious in interpreting it

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 252-257

Topic: 10.5 Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Type: (Applied)

 

 

Biopsychology: 9th Edition Test Bank – Pinel

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