Biology Exploring the Diversity of Life: 2nd Edition Test Bank - Russell Hertz

Biology Exploring the Diversity of Life: 2nd Edition Test Bank – Russell Hertz

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Biology Exploring the Diversity of Life: 2nd Edition Test Bank – Russell Hertz
What: TEST BANK
ISBN: 0176503757
Year Published: 2012
Authors: Russell Hertz
Edition: 2nd

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Biology Exploring the Diversity of Life: 2nd Edition Test Bank – Russell Hertz

 

Biology Exploring the Diversity of Life: 2nd Edition Test Bank – Russell Hertz

 

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CHAPTER 14—Control of Gene Expression

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What is the primary distinction between different nucleated cells in a developing zygote?
a. the expression of a gene or group of genes
b. the genetic code of each cell
c. the number of chromosomes present in the nucleus
d. the expression of housekeeping genes
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 308
TOP: 14.0 WHY IT MATTERS BLM: Knowledge

2. What is the essential molecular difference that distinguishes cell types?
a. presence or absence of tissues
b. presence or absence of genes
c. presence or absence of specific introns
d. presence or absence of products resulting from expression of genes
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 309
TOP: 14.0 WHY IT MATTERS BLM: Knowledge

3. Why do prokaryotic organisms tend to undergo rapid and reversible alterations in their genes?
a. because they not as advanced
b. because they are small
c. because they are simple
d. because they grow quickly
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 309
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Comprehension

4. Which of the following best describes the general strategy of metabolic gene regulation in prokaryotes?
a. Genes are always on for early steps in the pathway, but genes for later steps are generally off.
b. Genes are turned on and off as conditions change.
c. Genes are independently regulated.
d. Genes are always on so the bacteria can respond rapidly to changing conditions.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge

5. Genes in operons are transcribed in such a way as to share which of the following molecules?
a. mRNA
b. tRNA
c. protein
d. ribosome
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 309-310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge

6. Which term refers to a cluster of genes transcribed into a single mRNA unit in the operon model?
a. alpha genes
b. mRNA cluster
c. gene group
d. transcription unit
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge

7. Which of the following components of an operon is a molecule of DNA?
a. repressor
b. lactose
c. mRNA
d. operator
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge

8. Which of the following proteins binds to the operator in the operon model?
a. DNA polymoerase
b. RNA polymerase
c. a regulatory protein
d. lactose
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge

9. Where does RNA polymerase first bind to on the E. coli lac operon?
a. to the transcription initiation site
b. to the lacI repressor
c. to the promoter
d. to the operator
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Figure 14.2 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge

10. Suppose that a strain of E. coli containing a mutant lac operon is discovered. Also suppose that the mutant operon is normal in terms of its regulation, but the lacY gene produces a defective protein. Which metabolic function will be impaired in this bacterium?
a. transport of lactose into the cell
b. transacetylase
c. binding of the repressor to the operator
d. conversion of lactose into monosaccharides
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.2 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge | Comprehension

11. Suppose the lacI repressor gene were permanently silenced by a mutation. What would be the impact on the function of the lac operon?
a. There would be no real impact on lac operon expression.
b. The lac operon would be transcribed, but at a high level.
c. The lac operon would be expressed only when lactose was present.
d. The lac operon would be transcribed, but at a low level.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Figure 14.3 | p. 311
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Application

12. What does the presence of lactose allow in the E. coli lac operon?
a. dissociation of the Lac repressor from the promoter
b. dissociation of the Lac repressor from the operator
c. binding of the Lac repressor to the operator
d. binding of the Lac repressor to glucose
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.3 | p. 311
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge | Comprehension

13. Suppose that an E. coli had a mutation in its lac operon such that the Lac repressor could NOT bind the operator, even in the absence of lactose. What would be the result in terms of the function of the operon?
a. The lac operon would be transcribed, but at a high level.
b. The lac operon would be expressed only when lactose was present.
c. There would be no real impact on lac operon expression.
d. The lac operon would be transcribed, but at a low level.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.3 | p. 311
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge | Comprehension

14. Suppose that you observe a mutant E. coli in which CAP is always inactive. In the presence of lactose and low levels of glucose, what would you expect the gene expression from this mutant’s lac operon to be?
a. inactive
b. normal
c. greatly reduced
d. overactive
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.4 | p. 312
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Comprehension

15. Which of the following best explains why E. coli shuts down the trp operon if tryptophan is available in the environment?
a. It does not shut down the trp operon but only lowers the level of trp operon activity.
b. The trp operon encodes genes that export tryptophan from the cell; if tryptophan already occurs in the environment, further export is not necessary.
c. Synthesizing an amino acid takes energy, so it is a waste of energy to make something that is already available.
d. Environmental tryptophan is of higher quality than what the E. coli can make itself.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 313
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge | Comprehension

16. What is the default state of a repressible operon such as the trp operon?
a. normal transcription
b. no transcription
c. low level transcription
d. high level transcription
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 313
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Comprehension

17. In catabolite repression, what is indicated by high levels of cAMP?
a. low lactose
b. low glucose
c. high lactose
d. high glucose
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 313
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge

18. Where is the Trp repressor gene located?
a. just upstream of the trp operon
b. on a region of the chromosome quite distant from the trp operon
c. just downstream of the trp operon
d. adjacent to the Lac repressor gene
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 313-314
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Knowledge

19. What is the single most important stage when regulating eukaroytic gene expression?
a. RNA interference
b. translational regulation
c. degradation of mRNA
d. initiation of transcription
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 315
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

20. Which element does RNA polymerase II bind to?
a. transcription factors bound to the promoter
b. transcription factors, free-floating
c. TATA box
d. promoter sequence
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Figure 14.7 | p. 316
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

21. In the above figure, which number identifies a sequence that is transcribed but NOT translated?
a. 6
b. 4
c. 3
d. 5
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.7 | p. 316
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

22. In the above figure, which number identifies the promoter?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 1
d. 4
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Figure 14.7 | p. 316
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

23. In the above figure, which number identifies the proximal promoter?
a. 4
b. 3
c. 1
d. 2
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Figure 14.7 | p. 316
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

24. In the above figure, which number identifies the site where the transcriptional complex begins to form?
a. 4
b. 2
c. 1
d. 3
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.7 | p. 316
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

25. In the above figure, which number identifies a region near the promoter that increases the rate of transcription?
a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
d. 2
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.7 | p. 316
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

26. In the above figure, which number identifies the site where activators bind?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 5
d. 3
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Figure 14.7 | p. 316
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

27. In the above figure, which number identifies a regulatory sequence that can increase the rate of transcription?
a. 5
b. 1
c. 4
d. 3
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Figure 14.7 | p. 316
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

28. In the above figure, which number identifies the sequence most directly impacted by chromatin remodelling?
a. 3
b. 1
c. 4
d. 2
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.7 | p. 316
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

29. How does a eukaryotic cell efficiently regulate the expression of multiple genes?
a. by having individual activators for individual genes
b. by having a few activators that can interact with small subsets of genes
c. by having activators that serve as catalysts for further activator protein synthesis
d. by having a few activators that work in different combinations to activate different genes
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 319-320
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge | Comprehension

30. To which portion of the DNA does a steroid hormone receptor bind?
a. a response element
b. an enhancer
c. a gene promoter
d. an operator
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 320
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

31. Which of the following explains why steroid hormones can trigger gene expression in a select number of different cells ?
a. because only target cells allow the steroid hormone to cross the plasma membrane
b. because only the target cells have a steroid hormone response element encoded in their DNA
c. because only the target cells have the correct coactivator
d. because only the target cells have a nucleus
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 320
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge | Comprehension

32. Which term refers to the process by which the histones are rearranged to control access to a gene?
a. DNA condensation
b. chromatin remodelling
c. remodelling complex formation
d. transcription
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 321
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

33. What is the name of the process that produces distinct regions of transcriptional activity or repression within a chromosome?
a. translation
b. promoter remodelling
c. transcriptional regulation
d. chromatin remodelling
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 321
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge | Comprehension

34. How does methylation regulate transcription?
a. via the addition of a methyl group to cysteine bases of DNA
b. via the addition of a methyl group to cysteine residues on RNA polymerase II
c. via the addition of a methyl group to cytosine residues on RNA polymerase II
d. via the addition of a methyl group to cytosine bases of DNA
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 321
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

35. What happens to a DNA promoter sequence when it is methylated?
a. It is temporarily silenced because the methyl group can be removed.
b. It is temporarily transcribed because the methyl group can be removed.
c. It is perpetually transcribed because the methyl group can never be removed.
d. It is permanently silenced because the methyl group can never be removed.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 321
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge | Comprehension

36. Which term refers to when a DNA sequence is permanently rendered inaccessible to transcription via methylation and chromatin modifications?
a. silencing
b. Barr body
c. inactivation
d. imprinting
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 321
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

37. Which of the following describes the role of acetylation during the chromatin remodelling that accompanies gene expression?
a. It adds an acetyl group (CH3CH2) to the DNA of a promoter sequence.
b. It adds an acetyl group (CH3CO) to the histone protecting the promoter region of a gene.
c. It adds an acetyl group (CH3CO) to the cyotsine nucleotides of DNA.
d. It adds an acetyl group (CH3CO) to the histone protecting the transcription unit of a gene.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 322
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

38. Suppose that you are asked to locate some mRNA masking proteins, and are given two rabbits—one male and one female—to use as your cell sources. Also suppose that you decide to do some needle biopsies of one particular tissue, and to extract the masking proteins. Which tissues or organ samples should you collect for analysis?
a. skin cells
b. testes
c. liver
d. ovaries
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 323
TOP: 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION BLM: Application

39. What is one function of the 5 UTR (untranslated region) of mRNA?
a. to decrease the half-life of mRNA
b. to extend the half-life of mRNA
c. to stabilize the mRNA structure
d. to control the half-life of mRNA
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 323
TOP: 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION BLM: Knowledge

40. Which type of RNA is transcribed in the nucleus, folded, cleaved by Dicer protein, and is then bound to a target molecule of mRNA?
a. an mRNA that never received its poly-A tail
b. miRNA
c. an mRNA that was not properly capped
d. siRNA
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 323
TOP: 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION BLM: Knowledge

41. How are the vast majority of proteins expressed early in an animal’s development?
a. They are translated from pre-existing mRNAs present in the unfertilized egg.
b. They are translated from pre-existing mRNAs delivered by the sperm that fertilized an egg.
c. They are transcribed and translated from the unfertilized egg’s DNA postfertilization.
d. They are translated from mRNAs that were transcribed from the zygote’s DNA in the first three rounds of cell division.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 323
TOP: 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION BLM: Knowledge

42. Which type of RNA is produced from genes that come from outside the cell?
a. mRNA
b. miRNA
c. tRNA
d. siRNA
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 323-324
TOP: 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION BLM: Knowledge

43. Which of the following is part of posttranslational modification?
a. the chemical modification of proteins
b. cleavage of poly-A tails from mRNA
c. chromatin remodelling
d. the binding of miRNAs to mRNA
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 324
TOP: 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION BLM: Knowledge

44. Pepsin, a digestive enzyme that degrades proteins in the stomach, is synthesized as pepsinogen and converted to active pepsin in the stomach by the removal of several amino acids. What is the activation of pepsin an example of?
a. posttranslational regulation
b. transcriptional regulation
c. translational regulation
d. posttranscriptional regulation
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 324
TOP: 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION BLM: Knowledge

45. What form must an mRNA assume in order to be targeted by miRNAs for degradation?
a. a double-stranded form
b. a nuclear form
c. a single-stranded form
d. a stem-loop form
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 15.14 | p. 325
TOP: 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION BLM: Knowledge

46. What happens to a protein when it is tagged with ubiquitin?
a. The protein is sent to the nucleus.
b. The ubiquitin enzyme degrades the protein.
c. The protein is sent to the proteasome and is hydrolyzed to amino acids.
d. The ubiquitin unfolds the protein.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 325
TOP: 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION BLM: Knowledge | Comprehension

47. Which of the following is a characteristic of normal cells relative to cancer cells?
a. dedifferentiation
b. differentiation
c. uncontrolled growth
d. lack of tumour suppressor proteins
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 326-327
TOP: 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER
BLM: Knowledge

48. Which of the following genes encode proteins that generally stimulate cell division in normal cells?
a. Proto-suppressor genes
b. proto-oncogenes
c. oncogenes
d. tumour suppressor genes
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 327
TOP: 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER
BLM: Knowledge

49. Which types of proteins do proto-oncogenes tend to be?
a. Protein phosphorylases
b. Membrane-associated proteins
c. extracelluar receptors and protein kinases
d. intracellular receptors
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 327
TOP: 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER
BLM: Knowledge

50. What is the role of a tumour suppressor protein in a cell?
a. to promote cell division of abnormal cells
b. to slow or halt cell division in abnormal cells
c. to trigger DNA replication in preparation for cell division
d. to promote cell division of healthy cells
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 327-328
TOP: 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER
BLM: Knowledge

51. Which of the following is a key difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes?
a. Physical separation of transcription and translation occurs in eukaryotes, but no separation occurs in prokaryotes.
b. Genes are arranged in order in eukaryotes, but the order is random in prokaryotes.
c. Near simultaneous transcription and translation occurs in eukaryotes, but they are strictly sequential in prokaryotes.
d. Gene expression is highly regulated in eukaryotes, but there is a lack of control of gene expression in prokaryotes.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-322
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES BLM: Knowledge

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

1. An operator and transcription unit are called an operon.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult
REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

2. Many eukaryotic operons are subject to numerous regulatory mechanisms.

ANS: F, prokaryotic operons

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

3. Eukaryotic genes are organized into operons.

ANS: F, prokaryotic

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

4. Eukaryotic genes consist of protein-coding sequences and adjacent regulatory sequences.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult
REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

5. Acetylation is irreversible.

ANS: F, reversible

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

6. Each steroid hormone can bind to its own steroid hormone response unit (SHRU) but NOT to the SHRU associated with other steroid hormones.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult
REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

7. When DNA is imprinted, the methylation pattern is preserved.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult
REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

8. RNAi is a key regulator or transcription.

ANS: F, translation

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

9. The DNA that encodes siRNA is NOT normally found in the nucleus.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult
REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

10. A direct correlation exists between the level of translation and the length of a poly-A tail.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult
REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

11. A benign tumour is usually NOT life threatening.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult
REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

12. Any gene could, theoretically, be specifically silenced by RNAi.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult
REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

COMPLETION

1. Imagine you are tracing the regulatory journey of a single protein being expressed in a single cell. The stages of regulation are multiple, and many of them can occur only in a particular order. Write the letter of the regulatory step beside the number corresponding the order in which it takes place in the process of protein synthesis.

A. regulation of transcription initiation
B. protein breakdown
C. pre-mRNA processing
D. protein modification
E. chromatin remodelling
F. RNA interference
G. initiation of translation
H. mRNA breakdown

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1.

ANS: E

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 315-326
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION
BLM: Knowledge

MATCHING

Match each term with its definition.
a. regulatory protein that activates the expression of an operon’s genes
b. interfering RNA molecules originally encoded by nuclear DNA
c. process of controlling the expression of genes that takes place at the DNA level
d. regulatory protein that prevents an operon’s genes from being expressed
e. inhibition of transcription via DNA methylation
f. interfering RNA molecules associated with some viral life cycles
g. tumour comprising cells that invade and disrupt the surrounding tissues
h. presence of this molecule, such as allolactose, will increase expression of an operon’s genes
i. cluster of prokaryotic genes and their associated DNA regulatory sequences
j. tumour that is comprised of undifferentiated cells that stay together in a single mass
k. spread of malignant cells through the blood or lymphatic system
l. one example of this would be removing a nucleosome from DNA to expose a promoter
1. operon

2. transcriptional regulation

3. inducer

4. repressor

5. miRNA

6. activator

7. silencing

8. benign

9. metastasis

10. siRNA

11. chromatin remodelling

12. malignant

1. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

2. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

3. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

4. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

5. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

6. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

7. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

8. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

9. ANS: K PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

10. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

11. ANS: L PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

12. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-329
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

Identify each labelled part of this illustration of eukaryotic DNA.

13. enhancer

14. RNA polymerase

15. activators

16. coactivator multiprotein complex

17. proximal promoter region

18. transcription initiation site

19. promoter

13. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.10 | p. 318
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

14. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.10 | p. 318
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

15. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.10 | p. 318
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

16. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.10 | p. 318
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

17. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.10 | p. 318
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

18. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.10 | p. 318
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

19. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.10 | p. 318
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

Identify each labelled part of the illustration of the Lac operon.

20. transcription termination site

21. lacI

22. Lac repressor

23. regulatory gene

24. lacA

25. promoter

26. RNA polymerase

27. operator

28. lac operon

29. lacY

30. transcription initiation site

31. lacZ

20. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

21. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

22. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

23. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

24. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

25. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

26. ANS: L PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

27. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

28. ANS: K PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

29. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

30. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

31. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure 14.12 | p. 310
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION | 14.4 THE LOSS OF REGULATORY CONTROLS IN CANCER BLM: Knowledge

SHORT ANSWER

1. Explain how combinatorial gene regulation allows eukaryotes to coordinate the expression of different genes very efficiently.

ANS:
Eukaryotes have a large number of genes, many of which are subject to regulation by transcription factors. However, they will always have fewer regulatory proteins than genes that require regulation. Instead of making one regulator specifically for each gene (which would require vast quantities of DNA) or “regulating the regulators,” they make a small number of regulatory proteins that can act together in different combinations on different genes. In this way, they can regulate many genes with few regulator proteins, thus allowing a great deal of flexibility and efficiency.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 318-319
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge

2. Compare and contrast DNA methylation to histone acetylation.

ANS:
DNA methylation and histone acetylation are two types of transcriptional regulation. Histone acetylation is a highly reversible way of granting transcription machinery access to a promoter. DNA methylation by itself is reversible, but can be permanent when paired with additional chromatin modifications. Unlike histone acetylation, DNA methylation can be preserved from one generation to the next.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 315-322
TOP: 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
BLM: Knowledge | Comprehension

ESSAY

1. The default state for the lac operon is off, while the default state for the trp operon is on. Explain this contradiction and the mechanism of control via the repressor proteins.

ANS:
The lac operon’s function is to allow a cell to utilize lactose as an energy source. It would not make sense to express these genes unless lactose was available in the environment. Because of this, the presence of lactose serves to block the repressor from binding to the operator. This results in the lac operon being active only when lactose is available.

In contrast, the trp operon’s function is to allow the bacterial cell to synthesize tryptophan, which is an amino acid used as a building block in protein synthesis. The cell must make it unless it is available in the environment. For this reason, the trp operon is on unless excess tryptophan is available (as would be the case when it is in the environment) to bind to the Trp repressor, activate it, and cause the repressor to bind to the operator.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-314
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS
BLM: Comprehension

2. When comparing gene regulation in prokaryotes to that in eukaryotes, which is better? Justify your answer.

ANS:
Neither is superior to the other; instead, each reflects the nature of the organisms using that system. In prokaryotes, the entire organism is a single cell, therefore differentiation is not necessary or desirable. Rather, the genome is organized and regulated to maximize efficiency of a cell during what might be a very short lifespan. In contrast, multicellular organisms must have cell differentiation for efficiency. This requires a method of regulation that is not needed or possible in the prokaryotic cell. By regulating gene expression at multiple stages, the organism can coordinate cell division, differentiation, and body development. In summary, each type of gene regulation is tailored to the life strategy of the organism in which it is found.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 309-326
TOP: 14.1 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS | 14.2 REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES | 14.3 POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL, TRANSLATIONAL, AND POSTTRANSLATIONAL REGULATION
BLM: Evaluation

 

Biology Exploring the Diversity of Life: 2nd Edition Test Bank – Russell Hertz

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