Biological Psychology 12th Edition Test Bank – W. Kalat

Biological Psychology 12th Edition Test Bank – W. Kalat

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Title : Biological Psychology

Author : James W. Kalat

Edition : 12th Edition

Type : TestBank

Product Description

Biological Psychology 12th Edition Test Bank – W. Kalat

Biological Psychology 12th Edition Test Bank – W. Kalat

True / False

 

1. The sex hormones include the estrogens, progesterone, and the androgens.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

2. Hormones are capable of inducing long-lasting changes throughout the body.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

3. Estrogens are present only in females​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

4. Progesterone prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized ovum and promotes the maintenance of pregnancy.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

5. Organizing effects of hormones usually occur early in development.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

6. Activating effects can occur at any time in life when a hormone temporarily activates a particular response.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

7. Nature’s “default setting” is to make every mammal a female in its external anatomy.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

8. In humans, testosterone produces its organizing effects on the hypothalamus by itself.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

9. Testosterone levels continue to increase throughout a human male’s lifetime.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

10. Drugs that reduce testosterone levels in males will most likely reduce their sexual behavior.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

11. Birth-control pills prevent pregnancy by interfering with the usual feedback cycle between the ovaries and the pituitary.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

12. In general, men are more jealous of sexual infidelity than women.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Evolutionary Interpretations of Mating Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.06 – Discuss possible evolutionary explanations of men’s and women’s sexual behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

13. Girls with CAH are more likely to participate in “tomboyish” activities.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behaviors
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

14. Androgen insensitivity syndrome leads to a genetic male with a female external appearance of the genitals.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behaviors
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

15. There are obvious differences in external anatomy of homosexual humans compared to heterosexual humans.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. Two major classes of sex hormones are ____.​

  a. ​luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone
  b. ​dopamine and serotonin
  c. ​steroids and thyroid hormones
  d. ​androgens and estrogens

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

17. Steroid hormones produce their effects by ____.​

  a. ​disrupting cell membranes
  b. ​opening ion channels
  c. ​increasing cholesterol levels
  d. ​entering cells and affecting gene expression

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

18. Which hormone(s) is/are likely to be found more abundantly in females than in males?​

  a. ​peptide hormones
  b. ​androgens
  c. ​progesterone
  d. ​estrogens

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

19. Which hormone(s) is/are likely to be found more abundantly in males than in females?​

  a. ​peptide hormones
  b. ​androgens
  c. ​progesterone
  d. ​estrogens

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

20. Which is true of androgens and estrogens?​

  a. ​Only males have androgens; only females have estrogens.
  b. ​Only males have estrogens; only females have androgens.
  c. ​Males and females have androgens and estrogens in similar amounts.
  d. ​Males and females both have androgens and estrogens, but in different amounts.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.

 

21. The hormone that prepares the uterus for pregnancy is ____.​

  a. ​testosterone
  b. ​androgen
  c. ​progesterone
  d. ​estradiol

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

22. When do the organizing effects of sex hormones occur in rats?​

  a. ​well before birth
  b. ​shortly before and after birth
  c. ​during their juvenile period
  d. ​at approximately two months of age

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

23. In general, when do hormones produce “organizing effects”?​

  a. ​whenever the levels of some other hormone have decreased
  b. ​during early stages in development
  c. ​during adulthood
  d. ​temporarily at any time in life

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

24. An organizing effect differs from an activating effect of a hormone in that an organizing effect ____.​

  a. ​inhibits the effects of another hormone
  b. ​lasts only briefly
  c. ​activates excitatory receptors
  d. ​produces more long-lasting effects

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

25. In comparison to activating effects, organizing effects of hormones take place ____.​

  a. ​later in life and produce more long-lasting effects
  b. ​later in life and produce more temporary effects
  c. ​earlier in life and produce more long-lasting effects
  d. ​earlier in life and produce more temporary effects

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

26. Which of the following depends on an organizing effect of hormones?​

  a. ​whether an organism develops as male or female
  b. ​the degree of sexual activity at any time
  c. ​the timing of migration or hibernation
  d. ​current metabolic rate

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

27. Sexual differentiation begins with ____.​

  a. ​Wolffian ducts
  b. ​chromosomes
  c. ​Müllerian ducts
  d. ​hormones

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

28. Which of the following is unique to genetic males early in development?​

  a. ​Wolffian ducts
  b. ​primitive gonads
  c. ​Müllerian ducts
  d. ​Müllerian inhibiting hormone

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

29. Müllerian ducts are found in ____.​

  a. ​genetic female fetuses only
  b. ​genetic male fetuses only
  c. ​female and male fetuses early in development
  d. ​female and male fetuses until shortly before birth

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

30. Wolffian ducts are found in ____.​

  a. genetic female fetuses only
  b. genetic male fetuses only
  c. female and male fetuses early in development
  d. female and male fetuses until shortly before birth

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

31. What causes the primitive gonads to develop into masculine structures?​

  a. ​the X chromosome
  b. ​the sex region Y (SRY) gene
  c. ​the sexually dimorphic nucleus
  d. ​Müllerian inhibiting hormone

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

32. What determines whether a mammal develops male or female external genitals?​

  a. ​the amount of testosterone during prenatal development
  b. ​the amount of estrogens during prenatal development
  c. ​the difference (subtraction) between testosterone and estrogen levels in prenatal development
  d. ​the ratio (division) between testosterone and estrogen levels in prenatal development

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

33. What would cause a genetic female mammal to develop an anatomical appearance resembling a male’s?​

  a. ​a lack of estradiol
  b. ​moderate levels of estradiol during an early stage of development
  c. ​a high level of testosterone during an early stage of development
  d. ​a high level of testosterone during the late part of puberty

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

34. How does the development of external genitalia differ from the development of the internal reproductive structures?​

  a. ​Reproductive structures are influenced by hormone levels; genitals are not.
  b. ​Reproductive structures for males and females develop from a single unisex structure; genitals develop from separate Wolffian and Müllerian structures.
  c. ​Genitals for males and females develop from a single unisex structure; reproductive structures develop from separate Wolffian and Müllerian structures.
  d. ​Genital development is controlled by estrogen; the reproductive structures are controlled by androgen.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

35. How does the development of external genitalia differ from the development of the internal reproductive structures?​

  a. ​Reproductive structures are influenced by hormone levels; genitals are not.
  b. ​Reproductive structures for males and females develop from a single unisex structure; genitals develop from separate Wolffian and Müllerian structures
  c. ​Genitals for males and females develop from a single unisex structure; reproductive structures develop from separate Wolffian and Müllerian structures.
  d. ​Genital development is controlled by estrogen; the reproductive structures are controlled by androgen.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

36. If a female rat is injected with testosterone during the last few days before being born or the first few days afterward, at maturity her ____.​

  a. ​pituitary and ovaries will not produce their hormones
  b. ​ovaries will no longer produce hormones, although her pituitary will
  c. ​pituitary and ovaries will produce steady levels of hormones instead of cyclic levels of hormones
  d. ​pituitary and ovaries will produce cyclic levels of hormones instead of steady levels

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

37. Genetic males with testicular feminization (androgen insensitivity) develop looking and acting female. This condition develops because of a genetic mutation that has which effect?​

  a. ​It decreases the production of cortisol.
  b. ​It prevents the production of testosterone.
  c. ​It causes a conversion of testosterone into estradiol within certain cells.
  d. ​It prevents testosterone from having its usual effects.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

38. What would cause a mammal to develop the anatomy of a male, regardless of its chromosomes?​

  a. ​exposure to high levels of testosterone during an early stage of development
  b. ​deprivation of estradiol during an early stage of development
  c. ​exposure to neither testosterone nor estradiol during an early stage of development
  d. ​an infusion of testosterone at puberty

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

39. Nature’s “default setting” is to make every mammal’s external anatomy ____.​

  a. ​male
  b. ​female
  c. ​intermediate between male and female
  d. ​fully both male and female

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

40. If you inject a male rat with estrogen shortly after birth, it will ____.​

  a. ​still develop into a male
  b. ​still develop into a male, but will act very much like a female
  c. ​develop into something intermediate between female and male
  d. ​develop into a female

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

41. The sexually dimorphic nucleus is located in the ____.​

  a. ​thalamus
  b. ​Wolffian ducts
  c. ​anterior hypothalamus
  d. ​male brain, only

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

42. The sexually dimorphic nucleus is part of the ____.​

  a. ​thalamus
  b. ​Wolffian ducts
  c. ​anterior hypothalamus
  d. ​male brain, only

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

43. The difference between males and females in the sexually dimorphic nucleus is that it is ____.​

  a. ​larger in males than in females
  b. ​larger in females than in males
  c. ​present in males, absent in females
  d. ​present in females, absent in males

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

44. The hypothalamus of a female who is exposed to testosterone early in life will ____.​

  a. ​decrease in size
  b. ​develop a cyclic pattern of hormone release
  c. ​develop more like a typical male hypothalamus (noncyclic)
  d. ​become inactive

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

45. According to rodent studies, testosterone exerts a major part of its effect on ____.​

  a. ​alpha-fetoprotein
  b. ​the sex region Y gene
  c. ​the thalamus
  d. ​the hypothalamus

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

46. Estradiol normally found in the bloodstream of a female rat fetus neither masculinizes nor feminizes its development because it is ____.​

  a. ​chemically converted to testosterone
  b. ​bound to alpha-fetoprotein
  c. ​dissolved in the fat supplies of the fetus
  d. ​not effective on cells even if it did enter them

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

47. The estradiol normally found in the bloodstream of a female rat fetus neither masculinizes nor feminizes its development because it ____.​

  a. ​is chemically converted to testosterone
  b. ​is prevented from entering the developing cells
  c. ​is chemically unstable at the body temperature of a fetus
  d. ​would have no effect on cells even if it did enter them

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

48. The most effective way to stimulate sexual behavior in a female rodent is to inject her with ____.​

  a. ​prolactin followed by estradiol
  b. ​progesterone following by parathyroid hormone
  c. ​alpha fetoprotein followed by cholecystokinin
  d. ​a combination of estradiol and progesterone

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

49. One way that estrogen increases sexual responsiveness is by ____.​

  a. ​synchronizing activity between the hypothalamus of the left and right hemispheres
  b. ​suppressing the release of competing hormones such as testosterone
  c. ​decreasing the rate of overall body activity
  d. ​increasing the sensitivity of nerves in the pubic area

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

50. Male sexual behavior depends heavily on neurons in the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus releasing which substance?​

  a. ​testosterone
  b. ​dopamine
  c. ​estrogen
  d. ​luteinizing hormone

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

51. In castrated male rats, the medial preoptic area ____.​

  a. ​does not have as much dopamine as other rats
  b. ​has normal levels of dopamine released in the presence of a receptive female
  c. ​has as much dopamine as normal rats, but the presence of a receptive female does not evoke much release of it
  d. ​releases the same level of dopamine, but not testosterone, as a normal rat

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

52. In normal female rats, release of dopamine in the medial preoptic area activity is primed by ____.​

  a. ​serotonin
  b. ​testosterone
  c. ​a combination of testosterone and estrogen
  d. ​estradiol

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

53. Dopamine stimulation of D2 receptors facilitates ____.​

  a. ​arousal
  b. ​orgasm
  c. ​sperm production
  d. ​sexually receptive postures in the female

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

54. Sexual behavior is most likely to occur when sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) prime the neurons in the hypothalamus to release the neurotransmitter ____.​

  a. ​serotonin
  b. ​norepinephrine
  c. ​dopamine
  d. ​acetylcholine

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

55. Whereas dopamine stimulates sexual activity, the neurotransmitter ____ inhibits it, in part by blocking dopamine release. ​

  a. ​testosterone
  b. ​estrogen
  c. ​serotonin
  d. ​estradiol

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

56. By blocking dopamine release, some antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin levels also ____.​

  a. ​increase sexual activity
  b. ​decrease sexual activity
  c. ​cause permanent organizational defects
  d. ​shrink the SDN

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

57. What hormone is released during orgasm and is apparently responsible for the calmness and lack of anxiety after orgasm?​

  a. ​insulin
  b. ​aldosterone
  c. ​melatonin
  d. ​oxytocin

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

58. Sildenafil (Viagra) works by ____.​

  a. increasing sensitivity to female’s pheromones
  b. ​increasing release of nitric oxide in the hypothalamus and penis
  c. ​decreasing dopamine release in the hypothalamus
  d. ​blocking pain receptors in the spinal cord

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

59. A means of controlling sex offenders has involved reducing ____.​

  a. ​testosterone levels
  b. ​estrogen levels
  c. ​prolactin
  d. ​the alpha-fetoprotein level in their blood

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

60. Decreases in ____ levels generally decrease male sexual activity.​

  a. ​estrogen
  b. ​oxytocin
  c. ​testosterone
  d. ​estradiol

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

61. A woman’s hypothalamus and pituitary interact with the ____ to produce the menstrual cycle.​

  a. ​pineal gland
  b. ​ovaries
  c. ​thyroid
  d. ​adrenal glands

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

62. Follicle-stimulating hormone is released by the ____.​

  a. ​pineal gland
  b. ​anterior pituitary
  c. ​thyroid
  d. ​ovum

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

63. In the middle of the menstrual cycle, an increased release of estradiol causes a(n) ____.​

  a. ​decrease in the release of FSH
  b. ​decrease in the release of LH
  c. ​sudden surge in the release of luteinizing hormone
  d. ​increase in the release of testosterone

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

64. The hormones LH, FSH, and estradiol reach a peak ____.​

  a. ​in the first month of pregnancy
  b. ​at the start of the menstrual period
  c. ​at the end of the menstrual period
  d. ​around the time of ovulation

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

65. Pregnant women often experience nausea because of the heightened activity of the ____ receptor.​

  a. ​serotonin 3
  b. ​progesterone
  c. ​estradiol
  d. ​dopamine 2

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

66. The most widely used and most effective birth control pill is one that contains which hormone(s)?​

  a. ​luteinizing hormone
  b. ​androgen, but not estrogen
  c. ​both estrogen and androgen
  d. ​both estrogen and progesterone

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

67. Birth control pills prevent pregnancy by ____.​

  a. ​increasing the release of estrogen
  b. ​increasing the release of FSH
  c. ​interfering with the feedback cycle between the ovaries and the pituitary
  d. ​inactivating both ovaries

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

68. At what point in the menstrual cycle, if any, are women who are NOT on birth-control pills most likely to initiate sexual activity?​

  a. ​at any point in the menstrual cycle
  b. ​just after the end of menstruation
  c. ​during the periovulatory period
  d. ​just before the next menstrual period

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

69. In one study, women in the follicular phase, when the probability of becoming pregnant is greatest, preferred male faces that were ____.​

  a. ​more masculine in appearance
  b. ​somewhat feminine
  c. ​about halfway between feminized and masculinized
  d. ​larger than normal

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

70. People typically experience a state of complete relaxation shortly after orgasm; this occurs due to the release of ____.​

  a. ​testosterone
  b. ​oxytocin
  c. ​prolactin
  d. ​progesterone

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

71. Many female mammals become very attentive after delivering their babies largely because of a sudden ____.​

  a. ​drop in testosterone levels
  b. ​surge of prolactin and oxytocin
  c. ​decrease of prolactin and increase of oxytocin
  d. ​increase of prolactin and decrease of oxytocin

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parental Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.05 – Describe the roles of hormones and experiences in rodent parental behavior.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

72. If a never pregnant female rat is left for 5-10 days with a litter of babies, she will ____.​

  a. ​most likely kill them
  b. ​initially ignore them, but eventually will become more attentive
  c. ​initially be attentive, but eventually will ignore them
  d. ​immediately respond to them as though she gave birth to them

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parental Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.05 – Describe the roles of hormones and experiences in rodent parental behavior.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

73. If a never pregnant female rat is left for 5-10 days with a litter of babies, she will ____.​

  a. ​most likely kill them
  b. ​initially ignore them, but eventually will become more attentive
  c. ​initially be attentive, but eventually will ignore them
  d. ​immediately respond to them as though she gave birth to them

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parental Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.05 – Describe the roles of hormones and experiences in rodent parental behavior.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

74. Hormones are most essential to which aspect of mammalian parental behavior?​

  a. ​care for newborns during the first few days
  b. ​continuation of care after the first few days
  c. ​the parental care sometimes shown by males
  d. ​all aspects equally

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parental Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.05 – Describe the roles of hormones and experiences in rodent parental behavior.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

75. Pheromones of newborn rats ____.​

  a. ​inhibit maternal behavior
  b. ​stimulate maternal behaviors directly
  c. ​stimulate the release of hormones that affect maternal behaviors
  d. ​stimulate paternal behaviors, but not maternal behaviors

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parental Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.05 – Describe the roles of hormones and experiences in rodent parental behavior.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

76. One objection to the use of the one-mate strategy in women is that ____.​

  a. ​in some cases, having multiple sex partners can result in more offspring
  b. ​women are more jealous than men
  c. ​women can’t be sure that their mate is the father
  d. ​there are no men who share this strategy

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Evolutionary Interpretations of Mating Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.06 – Discuss possible evolutionary explanations of men’s and women’s sexual behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

77. Which mate-selection preference is stronger for men than for women?​

  a. ​acceptable odor
  b. ​likelihood of being a good provider
  c. ​youthfulness
  d. ​intelligence

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Evolutionary Interpretations of Mating Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.06 – Discuss possible evolutionary explanations of men’s and women’s sexual behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

78. At this point, the conclusions of studies on the evolutionary interpretations of mating behavior suggest that these behaviors are ____.​

  a. ​primarily inherited
  b. ​primarily learned from cultural influence
  c. ​used to justify our behaviors
  d. ​lacking the scientific studies to allow us to draw a conclusion about them

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Evolutionary Interpretations of Mating Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.06 – Discuss possible evolutionary explanations of men’s and women’s sexual behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

79. What does a coral goby fish do if its mate dies after eggs have been laid?​

  a. ​A male will abandon the eggs and find a new mate.
  b. ​A female will care for her young and then die.
  c. ​Either sex will care for the eggs and, if necessary, change sex to form a new mating pair.
  d. ​Either sex will abandon the eggs to find a new mate.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

80. Sex differences are to ____ as gender differences are to ____.​

  a. ​anatomy; behaviors
  b. ​adults; children
  c. ​excitation; inhibition
  d. ​scientists; the public

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

81. Gender identity can be defined as ____.​

  a. ​the pattern of one’s sex chromosomes
  b. ​the sex one identifies with and calls oneself
  c. ​sexual awareness present in almost all mammalian species
  d. ​the set of activities presumed to be common for one sex or another in a society

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

82. What would cause a genetic female to develop a partly masculinized anatomy?​

  a. ​excessive levels of alpha-fetoprotein in her blood
  b. ​exposure of her mother to stressful experiences late in pregnancy
  c. ​exposure to less than the usual amount of estrogen during an early sensitive period
  d. ​exposure to more than the usual amount of testosterone during an early sensitive period

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

83. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) occurs because the adrenal gland releases ____.​

  a. ​too much cortisol
  b. ​too little cortisol
  c. ​too little estrogen
  d. ​too much insulin

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

84. What happens to a female human fetus exposed to excess testosterone during the sensitive period for genital development?​

  a. ​She is unaffected, since she has no receptors for testosterone.
  b. ​She will often develop without any sexual organs.
  c. ​She will often develop with genitals that have an intermediate appearance.
  d. ​She will often develop a complete, functioning, set of male reproductive organs.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

85. A hermaphrodite is an individual ____.​

  a. ​who dresses and lives as the opposite sex
  b. ​whose genital anatomy is intermediate between male and female
  c. ​with no sex drive
  d. ​with too much testosterone

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

86. Who would probably develop as an intersex?​

  a. ​a genetic female exposed to more testosterone than normal during early development
  b. ​a genetic male exposed to more estradiol than normal during early development
  c. ​a genetic female deprived of her normal amount of estradiol during early development
  d. ​a genetic male exposed to a larger than normal amount of testosterone during early development

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

87. A “true hermaphrodite” is someone who ____.​

  a. ​has both XX and XY chromosome patterns
  b. ​has both testicular and ovarian tissue
  c. ​is female, but has sexual interest only in other females
  d. ​dresses up as the opposite gender

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

88. What were the findings of a study of CAH girls in adolescence?​

  a. ​They read more sports magazines than the average for other teenage girls.
  b. ​They read more glamour magazines than the average for other teenage girls.
  c. ​They show less physical aggression than most other women do as adults.
  d. ​They show more interest in infants than most other women do as adults.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

89. Girls who are exposed to higher than normal androgen levels during prenatal development tend to ____.​

  a. ​choose to play with more typically masculine toys
  b. ​be more aggressive
  c. ​be more verbal
  d. ​develop lower than normal intelligence

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

90. Which circumstance will be most likely to cause a genetic male to develop a mostly feminine anatomy?​

  a. ​exposure to more than the usual amount of estrogen during an early sensitive period
  b. ​exposure to more than the usual amount of testosterone during an early sensitive period
  c. ​a condition that prevents androgens from exerting their effects
  d. ​excessive levels of alpha-fetoprotein in his blood

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

91. Certain individuals with an XY chromosome pattern have the genital appearance of a female. This condition is known as ____.

  a. ​androgen insensitivity
  b. ​cortisol insensitivity
  c. ​intersex
  d. ​adrenal hyperplasia

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

92. What is one current recommendation for raising children who have intersex conditions?​

  a. ​Raise the child according to whether the chromosomes are male or female.
  b. ​Wait until later and let the child decide whether to be called male or female.
  c. ​Identify the child as female, and have genital surgery performed as soon as possible.
  d. Identify the child as male or female based mainly on the predominant external appearance.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behaviors

 

93. What conclusion can be drawn from the unusual gender identity cases from the Dominican Republic?​

  a. ​The environment has no effect on gender identity.
  b. ​If given the necessary hormones at puberty, any girl can become a boy.
  c. ​Early child-rearing experiences are not the sole determinant of gender identity.
  d. ​Chromosomes are the determining factor in gender identity.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behaviors

 

94. The frequency of homosexuality in men is highest if ____.​

  a. ​a sister is homosexual
  b. ​an adopted brother is homosexual
  c. ​a dizygotic twin brother is homosexual
  d. ​a monozygotic twin brother is homosexual

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

95. Some studies have linked male homosexuality to having a greater number of ____.​

  a. ​older sisters
  b. ​younger sisters
  c. ​older brothers
  d. ​younger brothers

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

96. When examining the data on sexual orientation of twins and other siblings, what seems to be the most reasonable conclusion?​

  a. ​Genetic factors completely determine sexual orientation.
  b. ​Genetic factors play no role in sexual orientation.
  c. ​Sexual orientation is determined by genetics as well as other factors.
  d. ​Genetic factors determine sexual orientation in men, but do not seem to play a role for women.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Bloom’s: Analyze
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

97. Of the various hypotheses based on hormone levels, which is the most plausible explanation for male homosexuality?​

  a. ​Adult testosterone levels are low.
  b. ​Adult estrogen levels are high.
  c. ​Prenatal testosterone levels were low during some sensitive period.
  d. ​Prenatal estrogen levels were high during some sensitive period.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

98. If a female rat is exposed to highly stressful experiences late in pregnancy, what happens to the sexual development of her offspring?​

  a. ​The genetic males become responsive to male partners.
  b. ​The genetic females become responsive to female partners.
  c. ​Both male and female offspring become unresponsive to all sexual partners.
  d. ​Both male and female offspring become highly aggressive in their sexual behaviors.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

99. The anterior commissure, on the average, is ____.​

  a. ​smaller in heterosexual women than heterosexual men
  b. ​larger in heterosexual women than heterosexual men
  c. ​smaller in homosexual men than heterosexual men
  d. ​larger in heterosexual men than homosexual men

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

100. What measurable differences are apparently related to homosexual versus heterosexual orientation in adult men?​

  a. ​their testosterone levels
  b. ​their estrogen levels
  c. ​the size of certain parts of their hypothalamus
  d. ​the pattern of dendritic branching in their cerebral cortex

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

101. On average, the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are of nearly equal size in ____ females, whereas the right hemisphere is a few percent larger in ____ males.​

  a. ​homosexual; heterosexual
  b. ​heterosexual; homosexual
  c. ​homosexual; homosexual
  d. ​heterosexual; heterosexual

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

102. A more recent study on differences in the INAH3 suggests that compared to heterosexual men, homosexual men have ____.​

  a. ​a larger INAH3
  b. ​smaller INAH3 neurons, but a comparable number
  c. ​fewer INAH3 neurons, but they are larger in size
  d. ​a comparable number and size of INAH3 neurons

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

103. The interstitial nucleus 3 of the anterior hypothalamus is known to be more than ____.​

  a. ​twice as large in heterosexual women as in men
  b. ​three times as large in heterosexual women as in men
  c. ​twice as large in heterosexual men as in women
  d. ​twice as large in homosexual men as in heterosexual men

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

104. When Simon LeVay examined interstitial nucleus 3 in 41 people who had died, he found that in the homosexual males in his sample, this nucleus was ____.​

  a. ​larger, but only in those who had died of AIDS
  b. ​comparable in size to the heterosexual males who had died of AIDS
  c. ​comparable in size to the whole group of heterosexual males
  d. ​comparable in size to the heterosexual females

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

105. Data gathered by studies such as the LeVay study suggest that ____.​

  a. ​the hypothalamus determines sexual orientation
  b. ​the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines sexual orientation
  c. ​on average, differences in the hypothalamus can be found between individuals of different sexual orientations
  d. ​there is only a small probability that the brain has anything to do with sexual orientation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

106. Congenital adrenal hypertrophy is most likely to have which of these effects?​

  a. ​A genetic male develops looking partly feminized.
  b. ​A genetic male develops a homosexual orientation.
  c. ​A genetic female develops looking partly masculinized.
  d. ​A genetic female develops excessive appetite.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.07 – Explain the relevance of intersexes for understanding the role of hormones in the development of sex-typed behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

107. Which characteristic tends to be more important for women than men in choosing a mate?​

  a. ​health
  b. ​earning potential
  c. ​physical attractiveness
  d. ​Intelligence

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Evolutionary Interpretations of Mating Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.06 – Discuss possible evolutionary explanations of men’s and women’s sexual behaviors.
TOPICS:   11.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

108. Male hormones” are referred to as ____.​

  a. ​organizing hormones
  b. ​SRY
  c. ​androgens
  d. ​estrogens

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   11.1 Sex and Hormones

 

109. “Female hormones” are referred to as ____.​

  a. ​activating hormones
  b. ​SRY.
  c. ​androgens
  d. ​estrogens

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   11.1 Sex and Hormones

 

110. Which of the following is true of androgens and estrogens?​

  a. ​Only males have androgens.
  b. ​Both sexes have both types of hormones.
  c. ​They are produced by the pituitary.
  d. ​They have opposite effects in males and females.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.01 – Describe the role of the SRY gene in mammalian sexual development.
TOPICS:   11.1 Sex and Hormones

 

111. Which of the following best illustrates the organizing effects of sex hormones?​

  a. ​increased heart rate during exercise
  b. ​determination of genetic sex
  c. ​masculinization of the brain
  d. ​nest building

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   11.1 Sex and Hormones

 

112. During the menstrual cycle, estradiol and progesterone levels increase and decrease under the influence of hormones released by which gland?​

  a. ​pineal
  b. ​adrenal
  c. ​thyroid
  d. ​pituitary

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   11.1 Sex and Hormones

 

113. At the end of the menstrual cycle in women, the levels of LH and FSH ____; the levels of estradiol and progesterone ____.​

  a. ​decrease; increase
  b. ​increase; decrease
  c. ​increase; increase
  d. ​decrease; decrease

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.04 – List some examples of activating effects on the behavior of males and females.
TOPICS:   11.1 Sex and Hormones

 

114. One important difference between organizing effects and activating effects of hormones is that activating effects ____.​

  a. ​are shorter-term
  b. ​take place mostly during an early sensitive period
  c. ​cause the pituitary gland to release another hormone
  d. ​control only the peripheral nervous system

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   11.1 Sex and Hormones

 

115. A sensitive period is ____.​

  a. ​any time in an organism’s life when it is sensitive to hormones released by the sexually dimorphic nucleus
  b. ​an early period when a hormone has a long lasting effect
  c. ​an early period when a hormone has an intense, but brief, effect
  d. ​a period of time, usually once a month, when hormones are released

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

Essay

 

116. Describe the organizing effects of sex hormones and give specific examples.​

ANSWER:   Organizing effects produce long-lasting structural effects. During a sensitive period in early development, the first trimester of pregnancy for humans, sex hormones determine whether the body develops female or male genitals. They lead to more receptors, and therefore greater sensitivity, around the female nipples than the male nipples. Later researchers recognized that sex hormones produce additional organizing effects at puberty. The surge of hormones at puberty produces breast development in women, facial hair and penis growth in men, changes in voice, and male–female differences in the anatomy of certain parts of the hypothalamus. Some of the differences in brain anatomy between males and females increase during this time. The changes developing at puberty persist throughout life, even after the concentration of sex hormones declines.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.02 – Distinguish between organizing and activating effects of hormones.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

117. Describe activating effects of sex hormones and give specific examples.​

ANSWER:   Activating effects are more temporary, continuing only while a hormone is present or shortly beyond. For example, current hormone levels influence the degree of sex drive. The burst of hormones during pregnancy produce complex, temporary effects on emotional arousal, aggressive behavior, learning, and cognition.

Testosterone, essential for male sexual arousal, acts partly by increasing touch sensitivity in the penis. Testosterone primes the MPOA and several other brain areas to release dopamine. MPOA neurons release dopamine strongly during sexual activity, and the more dopamine they release, the more likely the male is to copulate. Levels of testosterone correlate positively with men’s sexual arousal and their drive to seek sexual partners. Decreases in testosterone levels generally decrease male sexual activity. For example, castration (removal of the testes) generally decreases a man’s sexual interest and activity. However, low testosterone is not the usual basis for impotence, the inability to have an erection. The most common cause is impaired blood circulation, especially in older men.

A woman’s hypothalamus and pituitary interact with the ovaries to produce the menstrual cycle, a periodic variation in hormones and fertility over the course of about 28 days. After the end of a menstrual period, the anterior pituitary releases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which promotes the growth of a follicle in the ovary. The follicle nurtures the ovum (egg cell) and produces several types of estrogen, including estradiol. Toward the middle of the menstrual cycle, the follicle builds up more and more receptors to FSH, so even though the actual concentration of FSH in the blood is decreasing, its effects on the follicle increase. As a result, the follicle produces increasing amounts of estradiol. The increased release of estradiol causes an increased release of FSH as well as a sudden surge in the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary. FSH and LH combine to cause the follicle to release an ovum. The remnant of the follicle (now called the corpus luteum) releases the hormone progesterone, which prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized ovum. Progesterone also inhibits the further release of LH. If the woman is pregnant, estradiol and progesterone levels continue to increase. If she is not pregnant, both hormones decline, the lining of the uterus is cast off (menstruation), and the cycle begins again.

For humans, the results concerning female sexual arousal are a bit more complex. When researchers compared young married women, they found that frequency of sexual intercourse correlated highly with the amount of testosterone that women produced at the periovulatory period, the days around the middle of the menstrual cycle, when fertility is highest. However, a study comparing women’s increases and decreases of sexual interest from day to day across one or two months found that sexual desire correlated strongly with changes in levels of estradiol, not testosterone. Many women report a drop in sexual desire after surgical removal of their ovaries, resulting in lower estradiol levels.​

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.03 – Explain the role of testosterone in the development of genital anatomy.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

118. Give some examples of evolutionary interpretations of mating behavior.​

ANSWER:   More men than women seek opportunities for casual sexual relationships with many partners. Why? From the evolutionary standpoint of spreading one’s genes, men can succeed by either of two strategies: Be loyal to one woman and devote your energies to helping her and her babies, or mate with many women and hope that some of them can raise your babies without your help. No one needs to be conscious of these strategies, of course. The idea is that men who acted these ways in the past propagated their genes, and today’s men might have inherited genes that promote these behaviors. In contrast, a woman can have no more than one pregnancy per 9 months, regardless of her number of sex partners. So evolution may have predisposed men, or at least some men, to be more interested in multiple mates than women are.

Almost all people prefer a romantic partner who is healthy, intelligent, honest, and physically attractive. Typically, women have some additional interests that are less common for men. In particular, women are more likely than men are to prefer a mate who is likely to be a good provider. According to evolutionary theorists, the reason is this: While a woman is pregnant or taking care of a small child, she needs help getting food and other requirements. Evolution would have favored any gene that caused women to seek good providers. Related to this tendency, most women tend to be cautious during courtship. Even if a man seems interested in her, a woman is generally cautious before concluding that he has a strong commitment to her. She would not want a man who acts interested and then leaves when she needs him.

Men tend to have a stronger preference for a young partner. An evolutionary explanation is that young women are likely to remain fertile longer than older women are, so a man can have more children by pairing with a young woman. Men remain fertile into old age, so a woman has less need to insist on youth. Women prefer young partners when possible, but in many societies, only older men have enough financial resources to get married.

Traditionally, in nearly all cultures, men have been more jealous of a wife’s possible infidelity than women have been of a husband’s infidelity. From an evolutionary standpoint, why? If a man is to pass on his genes—the key point in evolution—he needs to be sure that the children he supports are his own. An unfaithful wife threatens that certainty. A woman knows that any children she bears are her own, so she does not have the same worry. (She might, however, worry that her husband might start supporting some other woman’s children, instead of her own children.) The degree of jealousy varies among cultures. Some cultures tolerate sexual infidelity by husbands, and some do not, and the intensity of prohibition against wives’ infidelity varies, but no known society considers infidelity more acceptable for women than for men.

Which would upset you more: if your partner had a brief sexual affair with someone else, or if he or she became emotionally close to someone else? According to several studies, men say they would be more upset by the sexual infidelity, whereas women would be more upset by the emotional infidelity. However, those studies dealt with hypothetical situations. Most men and women who have actually dealt with an unfaithful partner say they were more upset by their partner’s becoming emotionally close to someone else than by the sexual affair.

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Evolutionary Interpretations of Mating Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.06 – Discuss possible evolutionary explanations of men’s and women’s sexual behaviors.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

119. Describe some of the evidence that genetic factors may influence sexual orientation.​

ANSWER:   Studies of the genetics of sexual orientation have focused mainly on twins. Early studies of the genetics of human sexual orientation began by advertising in gay or lesbian publications for homosexual people with twins. Then they contacted the other twin to fill out a questionnaire. The questionnaire included diverse items to conceal the fact that the real interest was sexual orientation. The results showed a stronger concordance for monozygotic than dizygotic twins. That is, if one twin is homosexual, the probability for the other to be homosexual is fairly high for a monozygotic twin, and less high for a dizygotic twin. However, the kind of person who answers an ad in a gay or lesbian magazine may not be representative of others. A later study examined the data from all the twins in Sweden between ages 20 and 47. The Swedish study differed not only in the breadth of the sample, but also in the behavioral criterion. Instead of asking about sexual orientation, the researchers asked whether someone had ever had a same-sex partner. The results do not indicate number of people with homosexual activity or orientation. Rather, they indicate concordance—the probability of homosexual activity or orientation in one twin, given that the other twin had already indicated such activity. Although both sets of results show a higher concordance for monozygotic than dizygotic twins, there is huge difference between the studies. Other studies of twins in several countries also found higher concordance for sexual orientation in monozygotic than dizygotic twins, but the magnitude of the effect has varied considerably.

Several studies have looked for a particular gene that might be linked to sexual orientation, but they failed to find anything with a significant effect. Two studies reported a higher incidence of homosexuality among the maternal than paternal relatives of homosexual men. For example, uncles and cousins on the mother’s side were more likely to be homosexual than uncles and cousins on the father’s side. These results suggested a gene on the X chromosome, which a man necessarily receives from his mother. However, other studies have found no difference between relatives on the mother’s and father’s side and one study found more homosexual relatives on the father’s side. Consequently, it seems unlikely that any gene on the X chromosome plays a major role.

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.1 Sex and Hormones

 

120. Describe some of the evidence that brain anatomy may differ as a function of sexual orientation.​

ANSWER:   Do brains also differ as a function of sexual orientation? The results are complex. On average, homosexual men are shifted partly in the female-typical direction for some brain structures but not others. Similarly, on average, homosexual women’s brains are slightly shifted in the male direction in some ways but not others. Several of the reported differences have no clear relationship to sexuality itself, although they may relate to other behavioral differences between heterosexual and homosexual people.

On average, the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are of nearly equal size in heterosexual females, whereas the right hemisphere is a few percent larger in heterosexual males. Homosexual males resemble heterosexual females in this regard, and homosexual females are intermediate between heterosexual females and males. Also, in heterosexual females, the left amygdala has more widespread connections than the right amygdala, whereas in heterosexual males, the right amygdala has more widespread connections. Again, homo- sexual males resemble heterosexual females in this regard, and homosexual females are intermediate. The anterior commissure is, on average, larger in heterosexual women than in heterosexual men. In homosexual men, it is at least as large as in women, perhaps even slightly larger. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is also larger in homosexual men than in heterosexual. However, when interpreting these and other reported differences, we should remember two cautions: First, we don’t know whether these brain differences are causes or effects of sexual orientation. Brain differences can predispose to different behaviors, but it is also true that persistent behaviors can change brain anatomy. Second, it is relatively easy to publish results showing a difference between two groups, such as homosexual and hetero- sexual people, even if the difference was unpredicted, small, and hard to explain. It is less easy to publish results showing no difference. Thus it is possible, even likely, that the published papers overstate certain anatomical differences.

The most widely cited research concerns the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH-3), which is generally more than twice as large in heterosexual men as in women. This area has more cells with androgen receptors in men than in women, and probably plays a role in sexual behavior, although the exact role is uncertain and probably varies among animal species. Simon LeVay examined INAH-3 in 41 people who had died between the ages of 26 and 59. Of these, 16 were heterosexual men, 6 were heterosexual women, and 19 were homosexual men. All of the homosexual men, 6 of the 16 heterosexual men, and 1 of the 6 women had died of AIDS. LeVay found that the mean volume of INAH-3 was larger in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women or homosexual men, who were about equal in this regard. The difference between heterosexual men and the other two groups is fairly large, on average, and that the cause of death (AIDS versus other) has no clear relationship to the results.

A later study partly replicated these trends. Researchers found that the INAH-3 nucleus was slightly larger in heterosexual than homosexual men, although in this study the homosexual men’s INAH-3 nucleus was larger than that of heterosexual women. Still another study found INAH-3 to be larger in heterosexual males than in male-to-female transsexuals—that is, people born as males who changed their identities to female.

The meaning of these results is not clear. Do differences in the hypothalamus influence sexual orientation, or does sexual activity influence the size of hypothalamic neurons? Some brain areas do grow or shrink in adults because of hormones or behavioral activities. About 8 percent of rams (male sheep) direct their sexual behavior toward other males. One area of the anterior hypothalamus is larger in female-oriented rams than in male-oriented rams and larger in male-oriented rams than in females. This area becomes larger in male than female sheep before birth as a result of prenatal testosterone levels. In sheep, at least, an anatomical difference appears before any sexual behavior, and so it is more likely a cause than a result. The same may or may not be true in humans.

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Sexual Orientation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.10.08 – Discuss possible biological influences on the development of sexual orientation.
TOPICS:   10.2 Variations in Sexual Behavior

 

 

Biological Psychology 12th Edition Test Bank – W. Kalat

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