Abnormal Child Psychology: 6th Edition Test Bank - Mash

Abnormal Child Psychology: 6th Edition Test Bank – Mash

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Abnormal Child Psychology: 6th Edition Test Bank – Mash
What: TEST BANK
Year Published: 2015
Authors: Mash
Edition: 6th

Product Description

Abnormal Child Psychology: 6th Edition Test Bank – Mash

 

Abnormal Child Psychology: 6th Edition Test Bank – Mash

 

Abnormal Child Psychology: 6th Edition Test Bank – Mash

 

Sample

 

Chapter 10
1. ​The absence of joy and interest in activities that were previously enjoyable is called ____.
a. ​dysphoria  b. ​dysthymia  c. ​anhedonia  d. ​depression

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Overview of Mood DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

2. ____ is one of the most common symptoms of depression in children, occurring in about 80% of clinic-referred youngsters with depression.​
a. ​Irritability  b. ​Anger  c. ​Grandiosity  d. ​Inattention

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Overview of Mood DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

3. The earlier and mistaken belief that children could not suffer from depression was rooted in ____.​
a. ​biological findings  b. ​psychoanalytic theory  c. ​behavioral theory  d. ​cognitive theory

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

4. The earlier concept of “masked” depression was that ____.​
a. ​children wear a characteristic “mask” of depression, including downcast eyes and downturned mouth  b. ​depression is difficult to diagnose in children because they “mask” their feelings with a happy face  c. ​children purposely conceal or “mask” their depression so as to avoid treatment  d. ​depression could be “masked” or concealed by a variety of other behaviors, and thus, any clinical symptom could be evidence of underlying depression

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

5. Children who experience depression ____.​
a. ​rarely attempt suicide  b. ​rarely relapse  c. ​typically make a full recovery on their own  d. ​are at risk for future depressive episodes

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

6. The increase in depression in young people has been attributed, at least in part, to:​
a. ​poorer childhood nutrition leading to disrupted neurological development  b. ​media influences leading children to feel hopeless about the future  c. ​rapid social change leading to increased stress levels for young people  d. ​increased awareness of symptoms of depression in youth leading to an increase in the number of children seen in clinics for diagnoses

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Causes of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

7. Anaclitic depression was the term used by Renee Spitz in the 1940s to describe the pattern of behavior he saw in ____.​
a. ​emotionally deprived infants  b. ​abused toddlers  c. ​pregnant adolescents  d. ​bereaved children

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Causes of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

8. Young people suffering from severe depression often exhibit symptoms on a spectrum that include ____ in levels of severity.​
a. ​co-morbid behavior problems  b. ​sleep difficulties  c. ​suicidal ideation  d. ​suicidal ideation

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Overview of Mood DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

9. A ____ refers to a group of symptoms that occur together more often than by chance.​
a. ​disorder  b. ​cluster  c. ​syndrome  d. ​condition

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

10. The lifetime prevalence rate of depression in adolescents is as high as ____.​
a. ​5%  b. ​7%  c. ​20%  d. ​40%

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

11. Which of the following occurs more frequently in younger than older individuals?​
a. ​depressed appearance  b. ​irritability  c. ​somatic complaints  d. ​phobias

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Overview of Mood DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

12. Children with major depressive disorder are at greater risk than adults for developing ____.​
a. ​bipolar disorder  b. ​somatoform disorder  c. ​schizophrenia  d. ​panic disorder

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

13. Prevalence estimates for major depressive disorder in all children ages 4 to 18 range from ____.​
a. ​0.3% to 1%  b. ​2% to 8%  c. ​10% to 15%  d. ​20% to 25%

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

14. The increase in depression from preschool to elementary school is not likely to be a reflection of ____.​
a. ​biological maturation  b. ​growing self-awareness  c. ​growing cognitive capacity  d. ​increased performance and social pressures

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

15. The increase in depression from childhood to adolescence appears to be largely a result of ____.​
a. ​biological maturation  b. ​increased cognitive capacity  c. ​growing self-awareness  d. ​substance use

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

16. The most frequent co-occurring disorder(s) in clinic-referred youngsters with major depressive disorder is/are ____.​
a. ​conduct disorders  b. ​ADHD  c. ​anxiety disorders  d. ​somatoform disorders

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

17. Which of the following is least likely to co-occur with major depressive disorder in young people?​
a. ​conduct problems  b. ​ADHD  c. ​autism  d. ​substance abuse

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

18. Major depressive disorder in children is more likely to occur after the onset of all other psychiatric disorders, except for ____.​
a. ​bipolar disorder  b. ​separation anxiety disorder  c. ​ADHD  d. ​substance abuse

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

19. Prospective studies of children and adolescents have found that the age of onset for the first depressive episode is usually ____ years.​
a. ​7 to 10  b. ​10 to 12  c. ​13 to 15  d. ​16 to 18

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

20. Depression in children is characterized by ____.​
a. ​helplessness  b. ​apathy  c. ​contentment  d. ​mania

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Overview of Mood DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

21. A history of depression during the school years increases the risk for later ____.​
a. ​resilience  b. ​suicidal behavior  c. ​underemployment  d. ​aggressive behavior

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

22. Youngsters who have an onset of depression prior to age 15 and a recurrent episode prior to age 20 are likely to ____.​
a. ​have mild depression as a younger teen  b. ​recover from their depressive episode faster in adulthood  c. ​have mild depression as a teen, but chronic depression as an adult  d. ​have severe depression as a teen and poor psychosocial outcomes as a young adult

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

23. Which of the following is true regarding gender differences in the prevalence of depression among males and females?​
a. ​Throughout the lifespan, females are more likely to suffer from depression than males.  b. ​Depression is equally common among preadolescent boys and girls, but after about age 13 the rate is higher for females.  c. ​Depression is equally common among boys and girls in childhood and adolescence, but after about age 18 the rate is higher for females.  d. ​Females are more likely to suffer from depression at all ages, but only when there is a co-morbid anxiety disorder.

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

24. The increased risk for depression among adolescent girls compared to boys has been attributed to ____.​
a. ​changes in brain structure  b. ​gender identity issues  c. ​their tendency to use ruminative coping styles to deal with stress  d. ​less willingness to cooperate

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

25. Adolescent girls may be at higher risk for depression if they have a history of ____.​
a. ​interpersonal stress and lack of social support  b. ​under average height  c. ​lower levels of testosterone and estrogen at puberty  d. ​longer friendships with others who are depressed

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

26. A recent study found that in transition from adolescence to young adulthood depressive symptoms were highest for which ethnic/racial groups?​
a. ​Hispanic and Asian  b. ​Caucasian and African American  c. ​Hispanic and African American  d. ​Caucasian and Asian

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

27. Successful treatment rates of dysthymic disorder are ____.​
a. ​lower than those of major depressive disorder  b. ​greater than those of major depressive disorder  c. ​equal to those of major depressive disorder  d. ​lower than those of major depressive disorder in adolescence, but not in childhood

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Persistent Depressive DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

28. The most prevalent co-occurring disorder/s with dysthymic disorder is/are ____.​
a. ​anxiety disorders  b. ​ADHD  c. ​conduct disorders  d. ​major depressive disorder

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Persistent Depressive DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

29. Someone who focuses narrowly on negative events for long periods of time has a:​
a. ​negative attitude  b. ​depressive manner  c. ​negative focus  d. ​depressive ruminative style

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Persistent Depressive DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

30. The symptom most specifically related to depression in adolescents is ____.​
a. ​low self-esteem  b. ​sleeplessness  c. ​substance abuse  d. ​suicidal ideation

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Associated Characteristics of Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

31. Which symptom interferes with normal youth development of interpersonal relationships?​
a. ​sleeplessness  b. ​agitation  c. ​social withdrawal  d. ​somatic complaints

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Associated Characteristics of Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

32. Which of the following statements about suicide is true?​
a. ​Suicidal attempts are only specific to depression.  b. ​Overdose and wrist-cutting are the most common means for adolescents who successfully complete suicide.  c. ​Most youngsters with depression report suicidal thinking.  d. ​Suicide attempts of youngsters with depression almost never occur during times when they are symptom-free.

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Associated Characteristics of Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

33. The most common suicide method/s in suicide attempts is/are ____.​
a. ​firearms  b. ​overdose and wrist-cutting  c. ​hanging or suffocating  d. ​household poison

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Associated Characteristics of Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

34. The fact that depression occurs in many youngsters who do not experience loss or rejection, and does not occur in many children who do, is support against which theory of depression?​
a. ​psychodynamic  b. ​cognitive  c. ​behavioral  d. ​attachment

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

35. The ____ theory of depression focuses on parental separation and disruption of a bond as predisposing factors for depression.​
a. ​psychodynamic  b. ​behavioral  c. ​cognitive  d. ​attachment

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

36. Which theory of depression claims that depression is related to a lack of response-contingent positive reinforcement?​
a. ​psychodynamic  b. ​behavioral  c. ​cognitive  d. ​attachment

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

37. Depression prone individuals tend to make ______ attributions for the causes of negative events.​
a. ​external, unstable, and global  b. ​external, stable, and specific  c. ​internal, stable, and global  d. ​internal, unstable, and specific

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

38. ____ are the negative perceptual and attributional styles and beliefs associated with depressive symptoms.​
a. ​Depressed thoughts  b. ​Cognitive delusions  c. ​Depressogenic cognitions  d. ​Destructive cognitions

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

39. Information-processing biases displayed by depressed individuals ____.​
a. ​are errors in thinking in specific situations  b. ​are negative effortful thoughts  c. ​often include thoughts of past accomplishments  d. ​are based on poor faulty memory systems

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

40. The “cognitive triad” refers to ____.​
a. ​the three parts of the brain that process information  b. ​attending to, processing, and interpreting information  c. ​the three cognitive theorists who have advanced our understanding of depression  d. ​a depressed individual’s negative outlook about one’s self, the world, and the future

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

41. ____ view youngsters with depression as having difficulty organizing their behavior in relation to long-term goals.​
a. ​Interpersonal models  b. ​Self-control theories  c. ​Socioenvironmental models  d. ​Neurobiological models

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

42. The single best predictor of a child’s risk for Major Depressive Disorder is ____.​
a. ​drug use  b. ​family history of depression  c. ​psychosocial problems  d. ​academic problems

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Causes of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

43. Children of depressed parents have a higher rate of ____.​
a. ​conflict with siblings  b. ​eating disorders  c. ​physical injuries  d. ​sexual abuse

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Causes of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

44. The diathesis-stress model of depression explains the onset of the disorder as ____.​
a. ​linked directly to the occurrence of stressful life events  b. ​dependent upon the interaction between personal vulnerability and life stress  c. ​resulting from stressors caused by impaired functioning  d. ​biologically based

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

45. What is not a typical characteristic of families of children with depression?​
a. ​less warmth  b. ​less support  c. ​poor communication  d. ​underinvolvement

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Causes of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

46. In comparison to nondepressed children, those with depression experience ____ in the year preceding their depression.​
a. ​fewer friendship changes  b. ​fewer daily hassles  c. ​more severe stressful events and more daily hassles  d. ​more resilience

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Causes of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

47. ​The most successful treatment/s for major depressive disorder is/are ____.
a. ​nondirective supportive therapy  b. ​family therapy  c. ​psychoanalytic therapy  d. ​CBT and IPT-A

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Treatment of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

48. The most efficacious preventative intervention for children at risk for depression is ____.​
a. ​low doses of fluoxetine (Prozac)  b. ​residential placement  c. ​cognitive-behavioral therapy  d. ​electroconvulsive therapy

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

49. The only SSRI that is currently FDA approved for the treatment of depression in children is ____.​
a. ​paroxetine (Paxil)  b. ​fluoxetine (Prozac)  c. ​sertraline (Zoloft)  d. ​none are approved

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

50. Due to recent findings of possible increased risk of suicide and self-harm of young people using SSRIs to treat depression, the FDA has mandated ____.​
a. ​parents be well-informed and monitor their children closely  b. ​warning labels on medication and patient education guides  c. ​that children and adolescents should not be prescribed SSRIs  d. ​that SSRIs be prescribed in combination with psychotherapy

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Theories of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

51. Which of the following regarding bipolar disorder in young people is false?​
a. ​Manic episodes in their fully developed state are clearly different usual behavior.  b. ​Girls are more commonly diagnosed with bipolar disorder than boys.  c. ​Bipolar disorder is extremely rare in young children.  d. ​Rates of bipolar disorder are higher in clinical samples.

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

52. Regarding bipolar disorder, boys display ____.​
a. ​more depressed mood than girls  b. ​later onset than girls  c. ​more severity than girls  d. ​more manic behaviors than girls

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

53. Children (and adults) who experience a clinical course of one or more major depressive episodes accompanied by at least one hypomanic episode are diagnosed with ____.​
a. ​bipolar I disorder  b. ​bipolar II disorder  c. ​double depression  d. ​cyclothymic disorder

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

54. Which diagnosis is a child least likely to receive?​
a. ​major depressive disorder  b. ​bipolar I disorder  c. ​bipolar II disorder  d. ​cyclothymic disorder

ANSWER:  bDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

55. Which statement regarding the prevalence of bipolar disorder is false?​
a. ​Bipolar disorder is less common than major depressive disorder in young people.  b. ​Bipolar disorder is extremely rare prior to puberty.  c. The prevalence of bipolar disorder during adolescence is at least as high as it is for adults.​  d. ​Children often experience hypomanic episodes that meet duration requirements of DSM-5.

ANSWER:  dDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

56. Which disorder is least likely to co-occur with bipolar disorder in young people?​
a. ​mental retardation  b. ​ADHD  c. ​anxiety disorders  d. ​substance abuse

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

57. Bipolar disorder appears to be the result of ____.​
a. ​genetic vulnerability  b. ​environmental factors  c. ​genetic vulnerability in combination with environmental factors  d. ​untreated major depressive disorder

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

58. Brain imaging studies in adolescents with bipolar disorder point to abnormalities in parts of the brain that ____.​
a. ​regulate emotion  b. ​plan executive functions  c. ​control memory  d. ​regulate sleep patterns

ANSWER:  aDIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

59. In general, ____ is the first choice in the treatment of bipolar disorder.​
a. ​cognitive-behavioral therapy  b. ​interpersonal therapy  c. ​lithium  d. ​family therapy

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

60. Dr. Smith prescribes Sally a certain medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder; it causes weight gain. Which treatment is Sally taking?​
a. ​risperidone  b. ​alprazolam  c. ​valproate  d. ​fluoxetine

ANSWER:  cDIFFICULTY:  EasyREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

61. Why do mood disorders in children frequently go undetected?​
ANSWER:  ​Many young people with depression express these combined feelings of sadness and loss of interest or pleasure. However, some may never report feeling sad. Rather, they express their depression through their irritable mood. This is not something people would normally associate with depression.DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Overview of Mood DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

62. How do the symptomatic presentations of depression in preschoolers, school-aged children, preteens, and teens differ? How are they the same?​
ANSWER:  ​Children express and experience depression differently at different ages (Weiss & Garber, 2003). An infant may show sadness by being passive and unresponsive; a preschooler may appear withdrawn and inhibited; a school-age child may be argumentative and combative or complain of feeling sick; a teenager may express feelings of guilt and hopelessness, sulk, or feel misunderstood. These examples are not various types of depressions, but likely represent different stages in the developmental course of the same process.DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

63. Distinguish between depression as a symptom, syndrome, and disorder.​
ANSWER:  As a symptom, depression refers to feeling sad or miserable. Depressive symptoms often occur without the existence of a serious problem, and they are relatively common at  all ages. As a syndrome, depression is more than a sad mood. A syndrome refers to a group of symptoms that occur together more often than by chance. Along with sadness, the child may display a reduced interest or pleasure in activities, cognitive and motivational changes, and somatic and psychomotor changes. As a syndrome, depression represents an extreme on a dimension reflecting the number or severity of co-occurring symptoms that the child displays. As a disorder, depression comes in several forms. We will consider three types. The first, major depressive disorder (MDD), has a minimum duration of 2 weeks and includes low mood, loss of interest or pleasure, other symptoms (e.g., sleep disturbances, difficulty concentrating, feelings of worthlessness), and significant distress or impairment in functioning. The second, persistent depressive disorder (PDD), or dysthymia, is associated with depressed or irritable mood, generally fewer, less severe, but longer-lasting symptoms (a year or more in children) than MDD, and significant impairment in functioning. The third, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), is a recently introduced depressive disorder characterized by: 1. frequent and severe temper outbursts that are extreme overreactions to the situation or provocation; and 2. chronic, persistently irritable or angry mood that is present between the severe temper outbursts.​DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

64. What reasons have been put forth for the increase in depression from the preschool to elementary school years, and from childhood to adolescence?​
ANSWER:  ​The modest increase in depression from preschool to elementary school is likely not biologically based, but rather is a reflection of the school-age child’s growing self-awareness and cognitive capacity, verbal ability to report symptoms, and increased performance and social pressures. In contrast, the sharp increase in depression in adolescence appears to be the result of biological maturation at puberty interacting with important developmental changes that occur during this tumultuous period. This hypothesis is supported by the emergence of large sex differences in depression after puberty, the emergence of bipolar disorder, and the relative stability in rates of depression through adolescence (Birmaher et al., 1996).DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Major Depressive DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

65. Distinguish between major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder.​
ANSWER:  ​Young people who suffer from persistent depressive disorder (PDD) experience symptoms of depressed mood that occur for most of the day, on most days, and persist for at least 1 year. They are unhappy or irritable most of the time. (The sad and gloomy life of Eeyore the donkey in the 100 Acre Wood likely qualifies for a diagnosis of PDD.) Combined with their chronic depressed (or irritable) mood, these children also display at least two somatic (e.g., eating problems, sleep disturbances, low energy) or cognitive symptoms (e.g., lack of concentration, low self-esteem, feelings of hopelessness) that are present while they are depressed. Although the symptoms of PDD are chronic, they are less severe than those for children with MDD. PDD is a “new” category in DSM-5; it combines the previous DSM-IV categories of Dysthymic Disorder and MDD—Chronic. This was done because of the lack of differences between youths with a dysthymic disorder and those with a chronic type of major depression. In comparison to nonchronic MDD, chronic forms of depression, whether referred to as dysthymic disorder, chronic major depression, or PDD are associated with a poorer response to treatment, greater long-term morbidity at follow-up, and greater familial loading for affective disorders (McCullough et al., 2003).DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Persistent Depressive DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

66. What role do cognitive deficits and cognitive distortions play in depression?​
ANSWER:  ​Many children with depression experience biases, deficits, and distortions in their thinking (Lakdawalla, Hankin, & Mermelstein, 2007). These children commonly notice depression-relevant cues such as sad facial expressions more often than positive cues such as happy facial expressions (Ehrmantrout et al., 2011; Hankin et al., 2010). Given the importance of accurately reading emotional cues for successful social relationships, these selective attentional biases can contribute to adverse relationships with family members and peers.DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Associated Characteristics of Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

67. How is self-esteem related to depression in children?​
ANSWER:  ​Almost all young people with depression experience negative self-esteem. In fact, low self-esteem is the symptom that seems most specifically related to depression in adolescents (Lewinsohn et al., 1997). Self-esteem in children with depression is also highly reactive to daily life events, and such daily fluctuations in self-esteem appear to be related to depression following exposure to major life stresses (Roberts & Gotlib, 1997). Thus, both low self-esteem and unstable self-esteem seem to play an important role in depression.DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Associated Characteristics of Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

68. What is the role of the family in the development and maintenance of depression in young people?​
ANSWER:  ​Youngsters with depression experience less supportive and more conflictual relationships with their mothers, fathers, and siblings than do children who do not have depression. They report feeling socially isolated from their families and prefer to be alone rather than with them. In family situations, the child’s social isolation may not be a social skill deficit, but rather a reflection of the child’s desire to avoid conflict. Family relationship difficulties have been found to persist even when children are no longer clinically depressed (Sheeber et al., 2007).DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Associated Characteristics of Depressive DisordersKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

69. Explain some of the concerns of treating young people with depression with medications.​
ANSWER:  ​The main concerns are possible serious side effects such as suicidal thoughts and self-harm and a lack of information about the long-term effects of these medications on the developing brain. Related to these concerns and warnings by the FDA, the use of SSRIs with young people has decreased by about 20% in more recent years (Gibbons et al., 2007; Libby et al., 2007). In 2004, the FDA asked all manufacturers of antidepressant medications to include in their labeling a boxed warning (black box) and Patient Education Guide to alert consumers about the increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in youngsters treated with these medications.DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Treatment of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

70. Give three areas in which depressed individuals show cognitive problems, according to Aaron Beck.​
ANSWER:  ​First, they display information-processing biases, or errors in their thinking in specific situations, called negative automatic thoughts. Second, depression is believed to be associated with a negative outlook in the following three areas, referred to as the “negative cognitive triad.” Third, depressed youngsters have negative cognitive schemata, which are stable structures in memory that guide information processing, including self-critical beliefs and attitudes.DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Treatment of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

71. What are some of the characteristics of a family with a depressed child? Of a family with a depressed parent?​
ANSWER:  ​ Families of children with depression display more critical and punitive behavior toward their depressed child than toward other children in the family. As compared with families of youngsters without depression, these families display more anger and conflict, greater use of control, poorer communication, more overinvolvement, and less warmth and support (Sheeber et al., 2007; Stein et al., 2000). They often experience high levels of stress, disorganization, marital discord, and a lack of social support (Messer & Gross, 1995; Slavin & Rainer, 1990). Depression interferes with a parent’s ability to meet the basic physical and emotional needs of a child, including feeding, bedtime routines, medical care, and safety practices. Mothers who suffer from depression also create a child-rearing environment teeming with negative mood, irritability, helplessness, less emotional flexibility, and unpredictable displays of affection. When their children display negative emotions and distress, mothers with a history of depression are less likely to respond supportively with comfort, empathy, or assistance and are more likely to disapprove, dismiss, punish, or ignore their child’s negative emotions (Silk et al., 2011). Depressed mothers also display less energy in stimulating play, less consistent discipline, less involvement, poor communication, lack of affection, and more criticism and resentment of their children than mothers without depression (Goodman, 2007).DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Causes of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Apply

72. What approach is used in “The Action” for treating children with depression and their families? Describe the “The Action” program.​
ANSWER:  ​The ACTION acronym is used to nourish the idea that youngsters can have an impact on their (Stark & Kendall, 1996, p. 14): A Always find something to do to feel better. C Catch the positive. T Think about it as a problem to be solved. I Inspect the situation. O Open yourself to the positive. N Never get stuck in the negative muck. Multiple treatment procedures are used to reduce the child’s mood disturbances, behavioral deficits, and cognitive symptoms: Dysphoria, anger, anhedonia, and excessive anxiety are treated by educating the child about the relation between mood, thinking, and behavior, and by using anger management procedures, scheduling pleasant activities, and relaxation training. Interpersonal deficits are treated using social skills training. Cognitive distortions and negative and self-critical thinking are addressed by using cognitive restructuring procedures and training in effective problem-solving and self-control procedures.DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Treatment of DepressionKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Apply

73. Distinguish between manic, mixed, and hypomanic episodes.​
ANSWER:  ​A manic episode, which is the hallmark feature of BP, involves a discrete period of a week or more during which the youngster displays an ongoing, pervasive, and unusually elevated or irritable mood and persistently increased goal-directed activity or energy. This episode is accompanied by the types of symptoms we have been describing such as an exaggerated self-esteem, a reduced need for sleep, racing thoughts, rapid and frenzied speech, attention to irrelevant details, increased activity, or overinvolvement in pleasurable but often reckless and risky behaviors. A hypomanic episode has features that resemble a manic episode in quality but are less intense—the mood disturbance and increased activity or energy are less severe, of shorter duration, and produce less impairment in functioning than a manic episode. DSM-5 also includes a specifier of “with mixed features,” which can be used when a current manic or hypomanic episode includes subthreshold symptoms of depression or dysthymia or when an episode of MDD includes subthreshold symptoms of mania or hypomania.DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

74. What are some of the concerns or difficulties in diagnosing a child with bipolar disorder?​
ANSWER:  At the center of the controversy is whether BP can be diagnosed in prepubertal children. Some clinicians avoid the use of this label entirely, and instead label young children who display unstable moods with the less stigmatizing categories of ADHD or depression. Others use the label of BP liberally in young children, often based solely on the presence of mood swings, irritability, and aggression, leading to concerns about overdiagnosis. Thus, clinicians presented with identical diagnostic information vary widely in their assessment of BP in children, from 0% risk to 100% risk (Jenkins et al., 2010). A focal point of this debate is whether BP looks the same in young children as in adults.​DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

75. What are some of the concerns with medications such as lithium in treating a child who has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder?​
ANSWER:  Lithium is a common salt that is widely present in the natural environment—for example, in drinking water—usually in amounts too small to have any effects. However, the side effects of therapeutic doses of lithium can be serious, especially when used in combination with other medications; side effects may include toxicity (poisoning), renal and thyroid problems, and substantial weight gain (Gracious et al., 2004). It can be given to young people when used with the same safety precautions and similar careful monitoring used for adults. However, lithium cannot be given to children in chaotic families or to children who are unable to keep the multiple appointments needed for monitoring potentially dangerous side effects (Carlson, 1994; Geller & Luby, 1997).​DIFFICULTY:  ModerateREFERENCES:  Bipolar DisorderKEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

Abnormal Child Psychology: 6th Edition Test Bank – Mash

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